A comprehensive book on basic processes of soil C dynamics and the underlying factors and causes which determine the technical and economic potential of soil C sequestration. The book provides information on the dynamics of both inorganic (lithogenic and pedogenic carbonates) and organic C (labile, intermediate and passive). It describes different types of agroecosystems, and lists questions at the end of each chapter to stimulate thinking and promote academic dialogue. Each chapter has a bibliography containing up-to-date references on the current research, and provides the state-of-the-knowledge while also identifying the knowledge gaps for future research. The critical need for restoring C stocks in world soils is discussed in terms of provisioning of essential ecosystem services (food security, carbon sequestration, water quality and renewability, and biodiversity). It is of interest to students, scientists, and policy makers.
Application of organic and compost to the newly reclaimed lands maintain ecological balance and develops biological processes to their optimum case. In addition to preservation of soil structure, earthworm, and microorganisms. Addition of composts improves soil chemical and physical properties. It increases the water holding capacity and improve the soil structure and aggregates. Chemical properties include, decrease soil pH, increase cation exchange capacity (CEC) and enhance the availability of the most nutrient which important for plant growth and agricultural production. The intensive use of compost for increasing agricultural production, maintaining and enhancing soil fertility and decreasing pollution hazards is of vital importance especially in the newly reclaimed soil. There are several sources of heavy metals in the environment, both natural and man-made: soil parent material (rocks), commercial fertilizers, liming materials, sewage sludge, animal wastes, pesticides, irrigation waters, coal combustion residues, metal-smelting industries, auto emission, and other.
Der Beitrag der Landwirtschaft zur wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Guatemala durch Wertschöpfungsketten und agricultural growth linkages:International Rural Development Jochen Dürr
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Increase in world population, extreme weather conditions, decrease in fresh water supplies, and changes of dietary habits are major issues that affect global food security. We are expected to face the challenges of land use by 2050 because population will reach 9 billion while agricultural productivity losses are expected due to overuse of lands. How can we feed the next generations in a manner that respects our finite natural resources? Managing our resources in a sustainable way have only begun for selected crops. Much remains to be done to increase food yield. Cropping practices capable of sustainable production need to be elaborated, especially in fragile ecosystems. Typical applications will include the improvement and use of genetic resources; crop management and diversification; diffusion of improved varieties; development of cropping systems; sustainable cropping systems for areas prone to environmental degradation; use of agro-ecological data for crop production forecasting; and networks for regional coordination, and data exchange. The impetus behind this book is to bring attention to a cropping system that bears direct relevance to sustainable agriculture and food security. ´´Underutilized´´ crops are found in numerous agricultural ecosystems and often survive mainly in marginal areas. It is timely to review their status because, in recent decades, scientific and economic interests have emerged which focus on lesser-known cultivated species. Underutilized crops have a great potential to alleviate hunger directly, through increasing food production in challenging environments where major crops are severely limited. ´´Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops´´ is therefore topical and highlights the unmet agricultural challenges that we face today. This book is an important resource for students and researchers of crop science and agricultural policy makers.
What are the challenges and action points for agricultural sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa? This open access collection of papers offers technical analyses, policy recommendations and an overview of success stories to date. Each carefully selected paper provides valuable insights for improved policy making and defines relevant strategic priorities on Africa´s sustainable transformation process, which is in line with the international development agenda. Although agriculture remains the main source of income for Africa´s population, the sector is rain-fed subjecting it to the vagaries of weather and climate change. This volume demonstrates the rationale of developing a competitive, inclusive and sustainable agribusiness sector for Africa´s food security and structural transformation. From the impact of Bioenergy crop adoption and Drought Index Insurance to Agro-Industrialization, this volume is important reading for individual researchers, academic associations and professional bodies interested in African agricultural development.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and also provide for sustenance in stressful environment. Agro-ecosystems of many regions around the globe are affected by multi-stress. Major limiting factors affecting the agricultural productivity worldwide are environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield they introduce devastating impact on plant growth as well. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic association with the microbes in the rhizosphere. Naturally existing plant-microbe interaction facilitates survival of plants under these stressful conditions. Rhizosphere consists of many groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes which assist plants in coping with multiple stresses and in plant growth as well. These microbes help in stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food security problems. The proposed book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidates various mechanisms in rhizosphere of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity. The book discusses rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Both volumes of the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement, contains chapters which cover a broad overview of plant growth promoting activities of microbes. This proposed book also highlights the contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc-solubilizing microbes from rhizospheric soil to develop efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance the food and nutritional security. With the given content and layout the proposed book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture. It will be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. Timely, this edited and research book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material from basic to advance findings on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability.
The present study aimed to developing an integrated programme for management soft scale insect, Kilifia acuminata (Sign.) on mango trees based on the following considerations; Ecological aspects of the this scale insect which attacking mango trees, the role of some agricultural practices in suppressing population densities of mango insect pests and determination the most proper time for application insecticides, based on data of age structure.
This book deals with a rapidly growing field aiming at producing food and energy in a sustainable way for humans and their children. It is a discipline that addresses current issues: climate change, increasing food and fuel prices, poor-nation starvation, rich-nation obesity, water pollution, soil erosion, fertility loss, pest control and biodiversity depletion. This series gathers review articles that analyze current agricultural issues and knowledge, then proposes alternative solutions.