High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present-day high-capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops. However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit. High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with site-specific concepts, applications and results.
Working with Dynamic Crop Models: Methods, Tools and Examples for Agriculture and Environment , 3e, is a complete guide to working with dynamic system models, with emphasis on models in agronomy and environmental science. The introductory section presents the foundational information for the book including the basics of system models, simulation, the R programming language, and the statistical notions necessary for working with system models. The most important methods of working with dynamic system models, namely uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, model calibration (frequentist and Bayesian), model evaluation, and data assimilation are all treated in detail, in individual chapters. New chapters cover the use of multi-model ensembles, the creation of metamodels that emulate the more complex dynamic system models, the combination of genetic and environmental information in gene-based crop models, and the use of dynamic system models to aid in sampling. The book emphasizes both understanding and practical implementation of the methods that are covered. Each chapter simply and clearly explains the underlying principles and assumptions of each method that is presented, with numerous examples and illustrations. R code for applying the methods is given throughout. This code is designed so that it can be adapted relatively easily to new problems. An expanded introductory section presents the basics of dynamic system modeling, with numerous examples from multiple fields, plus chapters on numerical simulation, statistics for modelers, and the R language. Covers in detail the basic methods: uncertainty and sensitivity analysis, model calibration (both frequentist and Bayesian), model evaluation, and data assimilation. Every method chapter has numerous examples of applications based on real problems, as well as detailed instructions for applying the methods to new problems using R. Each chapter has multiple exercises for self-testing or for classroom use. An R package with much of the code from the book can be freely downloaded from the CRAN package repository.
Precision farming is an agricultural management system using global navigation satellite systems, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and data management systems for optimizing the use of nutrients, water, seed, pesticides and energy in heterogeneous field situations. This book provides extensive information on the state-of-the-art of research on precision crop protection and recent developments in site-specific application technologies for the management of weeds, arthropod pests, pathogens and nematodes. It gives the reader an up-to-date and in-depth review of both basic and applied research developments. The chapters discuss I) biology and epidemiology of pests, II) new sensor technologies, III) applications of multi-scale sensor systems, IV) sensor detection of pests in growing crops, V) spatial and non-spatial data management, VI) impact of pest heterogeneity and VII) precise mechanical and chemical pest control.
Reduced agricultural productivity, deteriorated soil health, escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, depleting soil organic carbon, reduced microbial diversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food grains and health risk to the population are the main reason to think for substituting the nutrient requirement of the crop through organic inputs. In present work the efficiency of organic farming was evaluated. The results of present investigation showed that the organic treatment combinations increased the productivity of soybean and wheat crops and resulted in higher income as compared to the conventional one. Besides the increased yield and returns, the organic treatments significantly enhanced soil organic carbon and its fractions; and improved soil health in terms of soil physical, chemical and biological properties.
The plant species that humans rely upon have an extended family of wild counterparts that are an important source of genetic diversity used to breed productive crops. These wild and weedy cousins are valuable as a resource for adapting our food, forage, industrial and other crops to climate change. Many wild plant species are also directly used, especially for revegetation, and as medicinal and ornamental plants. North America is rich in these wild plant genetic resources. This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them. Numerous maps using up-to-date information and methods illustrate the distribution of important species, and supplement detailed description on the potential value these resources have to agriculture, as well as their conservation statuses and needs. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants. Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity. The chapters ´Public Education and Outreach Opportunities for Crop Wild Relatives in North America´ and ´Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives - A Canadian Perspective´ are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
In this comprehensive manual on soil management, Neal Kinsey explains in thorough detail the workings of micronutrients, organic matter, and soil structure in improving soil fertility and crop production.
Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.] is the sixth most important global cereal crop which is grown by subsistence farmers in the semi-arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent (Haussmann et al., 2012). it is believed to have originated in Africa (Vavilov,1950 and Murdock, 1959), from where it was introduced to India. It is an important coarse grain drought tolerant warm season cereal which belongs to family Poaceae and is commonly known as bajra in different parts of the country. Pearl millet is a highly cross-pollinated diploid (2x=14) annual C4 crop with protogynous flowering nature, wind-borne pollination mechanism and availability of efficient cytoplasmic genetic male sterility system. It is extensively cultivated as dual-purpose crop over large area in Africa, Asia, Australia and also as forage crop in the sub-tropics of USA.
This book presents advanced ecological techniques for crop cultivation and the chapters are arranged into four sections, namely general aspects, weeds, fungi, worms and microbes. Biocontrol is an ecological method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. This practice has been used for centuries. Biocontrol relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors.
Agroforestry has come of age during the past three decades. The age-old practice of growing trees and crops and sometimes animals in interacting combinations - that has been ignored in the single-commodity-oriented agricultural and forestry development paradigms - has been brought into the realm of modern land-use. Today agroforestry is well on its way to becoming a specialized science at a level similar to those of crop science and forestry science. To most land-use experts, however, agroforestry has a tropical connotation. They consider agroforestry as something that can and can only be identified with the tropics. That is a wrong perception. While it is true that the tropics, compared to the temperate regions, have a wider array of agroforestry systems and hold greater promise for potential agroforestry interventions, it is also true that agroforestry has several opportunities in the temperate regions too. Indeed, the role of agroforestry is now recognized in Europe as exemplified by this book, North America, and elsewhere in the temperate zone. Current interest in ecosystem management in industrialized countries strongly suggests that there is a need to embrace and apply agroforestry principles to help mitigate the environmental problems caused or exacerbated by commercial agricultural and forestry production enterprises.
Wheat ( Triticum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant in the Poacae (Gramineae) family and settles in the Triticeae (Hordeae) subfamily. It is of great ethnobotanical importance. Other cereal crops such as maize, rice, barley, and millet are also domesticated from this family. Together they constitute the most economically important plant family in modern times, providing food, forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch), and fuel (ethanol) to support a diverse range of human activities. In recent years, however, due to the awareness of gluten in wheat-based diet, there has been a rise in interest in its wild relatives and landraces as new resources for consumption. Accordingly, crop scientists have also begun to reexamine the origin, evolution, and unique characteristics of cultured and non-cultured hulled wheats. Although hulled wheats, which include einkorn, emmer, wild emmer, spelta, macha, and vavilovii, are still grown in limited quantities on the higher areas of Turkey, Italy, Germany, Morocco, Israel, and Balkan countries, they have been sought after for their health promoting effects. However, despite the newfound popularity of hulled wheats in the lay communities, there lacks a critically reviewed resource for the researchers and professionals who wish to further develop these crop species. In this book, we provide an overview of hulled wheats with special attention to genetic diversities, conservation, and applications.