This book argues that development strategies have thus far failed in Western Africa because the many challenges afflicting the area have yet to be explored and understood from the perspective of institutional resources. With a particular focus on three countries on the bend of the Upper West African coast - Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone - this book offers a theory to account for the nature of these institutional elements, to test deductions against evidence, and finally to propose a reset for rural development policy to make fuller use of local institutional resources. Based on quantitative analysis and eight years of multidisciplinary field research, this volume features several large-scale RCTs in the domain of rural development, local governance, and nature conservation. The authors address one of the biggest topics in agricultural and development economics today: the structural transformation of poor, agrarian economies, and they do so through the important and unique lens of institutions.
Precision farming is an agricultural management system using global navigation satellite systems, geographic information systems, remote sensing, and data management systems for optimizing the use of nutrients, water, seed, pesticides and energy in heterogeneous field situations. This book provides extensive information on the state-of-the-art of research on precision crop protection and recent developments in site-specific application technologies for the management of weeds, arthropod pests, pathogens and nematodes. It gives the reader an up-to-date and in-depth review of both basic and applied research developments. The chapters discuss I) biology and epidemiology of pests, II) new sensor technologies, III) applications of multi-scale sensor systems, IV) sensor detection of pests in growing crops, V) spatial and non-spatial data management, VI) impact of pest heterogeneity and VII) precise mechanical and chemical pest control.
Agroforestry has come of age during the past three decades. The age-old practice of growing trees and crops and sometimes animals in interacting combinations - that has been ignored in the single-commodity-oriented agricultural and forestry development paradigms - has been brought into the realm of modern land-use. Today agroforestry is well on its way to becoming a specialized science at a level similar to those of crop science and forestry science. To most land-use experts, however, agroforestry has a tropical connotation. They consider agroforestry as something that can and can only be identified with the tropics. That is a wrong perception. While it is true that the tropics, compared to the temperate regions, have a wider array of agroforestry systems and hold greater promise for potential agroforestry interventions, it is also true that agroforestry has several opportunities in the temperate regions too. Indeed, the role of agroforestry is now recognized in Europe as exemplified by this book, North America, and elsewhere in the temperate zone. Current interest in ecosystem management in industrialized countries strongly suggests that there is a need to embrace and apply agroforestry principles to help mitigate the environmental problems caused or exacerbated by commercial agricultural and forestry production enterprises.
In recent years, Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) have been a key issue both in the scientific community and in public debates. This is due to their profound implications for rural development, local sustainability, and bio-economics. This edited collection discusses what the main determinants of the participation of operators - both consumers and producers - in AFNs are, what the conditions for their sustainability are, what their social and environmental effects are, and how they are distributed geographically. Further discussions include the effect of AFNs in structuring the food chain and how AFNs can be successfully scaled up. The authors explicitly take an interdisciplinary approach to analyse AFNs from different perspectives, using as an example the Italian region of Piedmont, a particularly interesting case study due to the diffusion of AFNs in the area, as well as due to the fact that it was in this region that the ´Slow Food´ movement originated.
This contributed volume provides 11 illustrative case studies of technological transformation in the global pulp and paper industry from the inception of mechanical papermaking in early nineteenth century Europe until its recent developments in today´s business environment with rapidly changing market dynamics and consumer behaviour. It deals with the relationships between technology transfer, technology leadership, raw material dependence, and product variety on a global scale. The study itemises the main drivers in technology transfer that affected this process, including the availability of technology, knowledge, investments and raw materials on the one hand, and demand characteristics on the other hand, within regional, national and transnational organisational frameworks. The volume is intended as a basic introduction to the history of papermaking technology, and it is aimed at students and teachers as course material and as a handbook for professionals working in either industry, research centres or universities. It caters to graduate audiences in forestry, business, technical sciences, and history.
Revised to reflect the most recent developments in food safety, the second edition of Food Safety for the 21st Century offers practitioners an authoritative text that contains the essentials of food safety management in the global supply chain. The authors -- noted experts in the field -- reveal how to design, implement and maintain a stellar food safety programme. The book contains industry best-practices that can help businesses to improve their systems and accelerate the application of world-class food safety systems. The authors outline the key food safety considerations for individuals, businesses and organisations involved in today´s complex global food supply chains. The text contains the information needed to recognise food safety hazards, design safe products and processes and identify and manage effectively the necessary control mechanisms within the food business. The authors also include a detailed discussion of current issues and key challenges in the global food supply chain. This important guide: Offers a thorough review of the various aspects of food safety and considers how to put in place an excellent food safety system Contains the information on HACCP appropriate for all practitioners in the world-wide food supply chain Assists new and existing business to meet their food safety goals and responsibilities Includes illustrative examples of current thinking and challenges to food safety management and recommendations for making improvements to systems and practices Written for food safety managers, researchers and regulators worldwide, this revised guide offers a comprehensive text and an excellent reference for developing, implementing and maintaining world-class food safety programmes and shows how to protect and defend the food supply chain from threats.
In the recent past, productivity of agricultural soils worldwide was on the decline. This prompted the fall of per capita availability of food grain from 510 g per day in 1991 to 463 g per day by 2004. These declining trends across the world were attributed to ever growing population, lowered incomes of populous nations, discovery of new uses such as bio-fuels from agricultural products, and weather based abnormalities associated with climate change often culminating in decline in rainfall (Sidhu and Kamal, 2007). The sustainable development of a region involves not only protection and reclamation of natural resources particularly soil and land, but also a scientific basis for the management of the environment. Resources should be managed in a sustainable manner. Having examined issues involved in irrigation, for example, water supply and remembering that no matter what we do to improve supply, water itself is inadequate in quantity and quality (Mudiare, 2007). It is therefore necessary to look into how to manage the limited supply of water for greater benefits of the farmers.
Carbon is the political challenge of our time. While critical to supporting life on earth, too much carbon threatens to destroy life as we know it, with rising sea levels, crippling droughts, searing heat waves, and catastrophic floods sounding the alarm on a future now upon us. How did we get here and what must be done? In this incisive book, Kate Ervine unravels carbon´s distinct political economy, arguing that to understand present-day global warming and why it remains so difficult to address, we must go back to the origins of industrial capitalism and its swelling dependence on carbon-intensive fossil fuels - coal, oil, and natural gas - to grease the wheels of growth and profitability. Far from kicking the fossil fuel habit, powerful corporations and states around the world continue to battle for the right to emit carbon dioxide in their quest for economic growth and development, placing carbon squarely at the center of the most trenchant geopolitical battles of the 21st century. Taking the reader from carbon dioxide as chemical compound abundant in nature to carbon dioxide as greenhouse gas warming the planet; from the role of carbon in the rise of global capitalism and the modern nation state to its role in reinforcing and expanding existing patterns of global inequality; and from carbon as object of environmental governance frameworks to carbon as tradable commodity, Ervine exposes emerging struggles to decarbonize our societies for what they are: battles over the very meaning of democracy and social and ecological justice.
Der Beitrag der Landwirtschaft zur wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Guatemala durch Wertschöpfungsketten und agricultural growth linkages:International Rural Development Jochen Dürr
Environmental Policy Integration and Water Use Development in the Algarve since Portugal´s Accession to the European Union:Institutioneller Wandel der Landwirtschaft und Ressourcennutzung /Institutional Change in Agriculture and Natural Resources. 1., Aufl. Andreas Thiel