The book examines the pattern of non-farm development at the national level and identifies the correlates and determinants of occupational diversification for the major states. It is one of the few studies that unravels the dynamic processes associated with growth and development at the sub-national level; wherein it elucidates changes in rural employment pattern and its implications for urban growth. The book fills a crucial gap in current research, notably, an understanding of conditions that enable large villages to assume an urban character. By providing micro-level study of census towns to capture the nuances of the dynamic situation in the countryside, the book would offer useful insights and provide reference material on the social and economic impacts of urban growth, thereby satisfying the needs of students, researchers and practitioners of regional economics, rural development, and sustainable urbanization. The book is the outcome of financial support received under the Research Programme Scheme of the Indian Council of Social Science Research (ICSSR), New Delhi, India.
Secondary forests are increasing in Vietnam. Quantitative forest structure analysis is really needed. This is the basis for sustainable forest resource restoration and development in the future. This book is a small contribution to that purpose. I would like to thank Professor Sven Wagner, Chair of Silviculture, TU-Dresden, Germany. Thank you for your support to complete my research. I would like to thank my wife, sons and family for being with me and encouraging me throughout the process of doing this research.
Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.
What are the challenges and action points for agricultural sustainability in Sub-Saharan Africa? This open access collection of papers offers technical analyses, policy recommendations and an overview of success stories to date. Each carefully selected paper provides valuable insights for improved policy making and defines relevant strategic priorities on Africa´s sustainable transformation process, which is in line with the international development agenda. Although agriculture remains the main source of income for Africa´s population, the sector is rain-fed subjecting it to the vagaries of weather and climate change. This volume demonstrates the rationale of developing a competitive, inclusive and sustainable agribusiness sector for Africa´s food security and structural transformation. From the impact of Bioenergy crop adoption and Drought Index Insurance to Agro-Industrialization, this volume is important reading for individual researchers, academic associations and professional bodies interested in African agricultural development.
The European Russian forests are described within the boreal, hemiboreal and nemoral forest regions; floodplain forests are also characterized. The book presents a classification and description of forest vegetation, soil characteristic and assessments of plant diversity and successional status of forest plant communities. Structure and composition of vegetation in early- and late-successional forests are analyzed with an emphasis on forests in State Nature reserves. Features of the historical land-use, such as slash-and-burn, forest cutting, grazing, influence of fires on forest ecosystems, etc. are discussed for each forest region. The book contains an analysis of the general dynamics of the forest cover during the last two decades based on satellite image processing. The main stages of transformation of forest landscapes in European Russia during the Holocene are briefly reviewed in connection with the development of the production economy of people.
Increase in world population, extreme weather conditions, decrease in fresh water supplies, and changes of dietary habits are major issues that affect global food security. We are expected to face the challenges of land use by 2050 because population will reach 9 billion while agricultural productivity losses are expected due to overuse of lands. How can we feed the next generations in a manner that respects our finite natural resources? Managing our resources in a sustainable way have only begun for selected crops. Much remains to be done to increase food yield. Cropping practices capable of sustainable production need to be elaborated, especially in fragile ecosystems. Typical applications will include the improvement and use of genetic resources; crop management and diversification; diffusion of improved varieties; development of cropping systems; sustainable cropping systems for areas prone to environmental degradation; use of agro-ecological data for crop production forecasting; and networks for regional coordination, and data exchange. The impetus behind this book is to bring attention to a cropping system that bears direct relevance to sustainable agriculture and food security. ´´Underutilized´´ crops are found in numerous agricultural ecosystems and often survive mainly in marginal areas. It is timely to review their status because, in recent decades, scientific and economic interests have emerged which focus on lesser-known cultivated species. Underutilized crops have a great potential to alleviate hunger directly, through increasing food production in challenging environments where major crops are severely limited. ´´Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops´´ is therefore topical and highlights the unmet agricultural challenges that we face today. This book is an important resource for students and researchers of crop science and agricultural policy makers.
Sustainable management of soils is an important global issue of the 21 st century. Feeding roughly 8 billion people with an environmentally sustainable production system is a major challenge, especially considering the fact that 10% of the world´s population at risk of hunger and 25% at risk of malnutrition. Accordingly, the 68th United Nations (UN) general assembly declared 2016 the ´´International Year of Pulses´´ to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of pulses in human nutrition and welfare. Likewise, the assembly declared the year 2015 as the ´´International Year of Soils´´ to promote awareness of the role of ´´healthy soils for a healthy life´´ and the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) has declared 2015-2024 as the International Decade of Soils. Including legumes in cropping systems is an important toward advancing soil sustainability, food and nutritional security without compromising soil quality or its production potential. Several textbooks and edited volumes are currently available on general soil fertility or on legumes but´ to date´ none have been dedicated to the study of ´´Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management´´ . This is important aspect, as the soil, the epidermis of the Earth (geoderma)´ is the major component of the terrestrial biosphere. This book explores the impacts of legumes on soil health and sustainability, structure and functioning of agro-ecosystems, agronomic productivity and food security, BNF, microbial transformation of soil N and P, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofertilizers, etc. With the advent of fertilizers, legumes have been sidelined since World War II, which has produced serious consequences for soils and the environment alike. Therefore, legume-based rational cropping/soil management practices must support environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems based on (sequential) rotation and intercropping considerations to restore soil health and sustainability. All chapters are amply illustrated with appropriately placed data, tables, figures, and photographs, and supported with extensive and cutting-edge references. The editors have provided a roadmap for the sustainable development of legumes for food and nutritional security and soil sustainability in agricultural systems, offering a unique resource for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, agronomy, ecology, and the environmental sciences.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Der Beitrag der Landwirtschaft zur wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Guatemala durch Wertschöpfungsketten und agricultural growth linkages:International Rural Development Jochen Dürr