The Present study deals with the ´´Zooplankton diversity of Lake Udai Sagar, Udaipur in relation to gut content of Catla catla (Ham.)´´. The outcome of the present study from planktonic diversity of Udai Sagar lake, a total 36 species of zooplankton was noticed. Out of 36 species of zooplankton, 18 belong to rotifer, 7 to cladocera, 7 to copepoda and 4 belonged to protozoa group from this lake. In the present study, the observed zooplankton ranking in order of: Rotifers Copepoda Cladocerans Protozoa Other. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of planktonic resources also revealed the moderate productivity of this lake. The average gross primary productivity (GPP) of Lake Udai Sagar was found to be 0.50 g Cm-3h-1. On the basis of average primary productivity, the fish production potential lake Udai Sagar was estimated to be 7533.6 Kg/ha/yr or 7910.280 Tons/yr (Odum,1971).Which showed considerable scope for the enhancement of present average production level 2365 Kg/ha/yr.
The European Russian forests are described within the boreal, hemiboreal and nemoral forest regions; floodplain forests are also characterized. The book presents a classification and description of forest vegetation, soil characteristic and assessments of plant diversity and successional status of forest plant communities. Structure and composition of vegetation in early- and late-successional forests are analyzed with an emphasis on forests in State Nature reserves. Features of the historical land-use, such as slash-and-burn, forest cutting, grazing, influence of fires on forest ecosystems, etc. are discussed for each forest region. The book contains an analysis of the general dynamics of the forest cover during the last two decades based on satellite image processing. The main stages of transformation of forest landscapes in European Russia during the Holocene are briefly reviewed in connection with the development of the production economy of people.
Genetic similarity and diversity of Asian catfish Clarias batrachus populations collected from hatchery and wild stocks were examined using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR). Out of l6 primers tested, 5 primers produced 1376 RAPD bands ranging from 8.1 to 13.71 polymorphic bands per primer. The polymorphic bands in these populations ranged from 56.4% to 59.6%. Polymorphic bands per lane within populations ranged from 4.88 to 5.3%. The similarity within the population from wild varied from 0.40 to 0.83 with a mean (±SE) of 0.57 ±0.08. The level of band sharing values was 0.59 ±0.07 within the catfish population from hatchery. However, in view of band sharing values, polymorphic bands and also the specific major bands genetic differentiation between these populations were present even if band sharing (BS) values were somewhat marginally different and good genetic divergence existed in both catfish populations. Therefore, the number of RAPD polymorphisms identified in this study may be sufficient to permit estimating genetic similarity and diversity.
Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.