Cashew nut, a major cash crop of Tanzania, is mainly produced in the South Eastern part of the country. Sulphur dust is widely used for controlling powdery mildew disease caused by Oidium anacardii Noack. This can cause acidification of soils and thus, may threaten the productivity of cashew and its intercrops. To evaluate the extent and magnitude of the current acidification, pH of topsoil (0-10 cm) subsoil (10-20 cm) and (20-30) of the NARI farms where sulphur had been applied for up to 5 years was compared to other non-cashew farms. On average topsoil pH of sulphur dusted fields was 5.7, subsoil pH was 5.4. However, coefficient of variation for soil pH and sulphur in the soil were 5.3% and 78.3% respectively indicating that sulphur application do differ significantly with the soil pH hence does not influence the change in pH of the soils applied with the sulphur dust. This is due to present of sulphur powder observed in applied cashew fields indicating that the mineralization and oxidation of sulphur was too slow.
India is largely occupies area of fenugreek with high production. The extent of yield mainly depends on various environmental factors and cultural practices. The factors like optimum spacing play an important role for achieving maximum yield per unit area. Normally, the fenugreek is sown by broadcasting which is common practice adopted by the farmer in Gujarat. This method dose not facilitates the farm operations viz., inter cultivation, weeding etc. Precise information regarding appropriate scheduling of irrigation based on IW/CPE ratio and method of sowing for fenugreek is meagre. Keeping in view the above considerations, comprehensive research programme was planned to study the judicious use of irrigation water which may provide information not only on water use by crop but also when to irrigate and to find out suitable method of sowing for fenugreek.
India is the second largest producer and third largest exporter of onion in the world. Onion represents the sole item in the list of fruits and vegetables where Indian figures prominently in the world production and export. Indian onions are famous for their pungency and are available round the year. The demand for bulb onion as well as quality seeds are increasing day by day and the price of seeds remain fairly high in each season. To sustain onion production, it is very difficult to increase yield horizontally, but there exists a great scope to do the same vertically that could be achieved by using good quality seed. The quality of onion seed production is still dealt by small farmers, who have inadequate knowledge for selecting proper grade of bulb and spacing of plant. This both factor reflected their effect on seed production of onion. Therefore, it is essential to generate new knowledge and technologies regarding seed quality attributes for increased production of onion. all those above reason, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of bulb size and spacing on quality seed production of onion.
Chemical insecticides were used indiscriminately, which cause various adverse effects and serious problem on environment as well as animal and human health including beneficial organism. For obtaining higher yield of a good quality, it is necessary to adopt insect pests´ management practices which are economically feasible, environmentally sound and sociologically acceptable. Screening of insect pests on field pea increased with the advancement of crop age and the actual damage.
Health and nutrition is the most demanding and challenging field in this era and will be in the future as well. Milk provides an ample amount of protein in an otherwise protein deficient diet. High protein milk is beneficial for enhancing the physical fitness, decreasing obesity while maintaining muscle and bone strength of the consumers. -Whey Protein & Cocoa beverage is highly nutritious. -May help to fight Cancer, Heart disease and antioxidant boosting effect -Cocoa may lower LDL cholesterol -Reduce the risk of blood clots, increase blood flow to the arteries -Lower high blood pressure and -Provide essential minerals such as calcium and potassium. -Stabilized blood lipids. -Aiding weight loss -Asthma Whey protein & Cocoa beverage is one of the important dairy products which is very popular amongst the people of all ages.
This book analyses the effect of off-farm income on farming household food security in southern Gombe State, Nigeria. A survey on 120 households was conducted in the year 2015. About 89 households were engaged in various off-farm remunerative activities to supplement their household food consumption. Food security status of farming households was measured using Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Households were found to be food secure and food insecure at different levels. Off-farm income was also found to significantly reduced household food insecurity in the study area. Policy formations to include the encouragement of rural off-farm remunerative activities was recommended.
In recent years, consumers are very much conscious about their nutrition and health and choose low fat meat products as these are perceived at least by many to be ´´better for you´´ than many traditional counterparts that contain higher amounts of fat. The qualitative composition of animal fat in the diet has been criticized for their high content of saturated fatty acids which is associated with increased risk for some types of cancer, high blood cholesterol and CHD. However, reduction of fat in restructured meat products is extremely challenging and poses difficulties in terms of quality of food products. For this reason, a number of substances (such as carbohydrate, protein and lipid based) with high water-binding capacity, able to promote the texture, mouth feel and form gels have been examined for their ability to replace fat and are called fat replacers. An overview of potential effects of animal fat on human health is included in the book. This scientific book also briefly discusses key characteristics, functions and potential effects on health status of fat replacers that are commercially available and a few that are under development.
The study evaluated the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin; and assess the growth response of fluted pumpkin to different fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application, also to determine the influence of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on vegetative yield of fluted pumpkin; and to assess the nutrient composition response of fluted pumpkin to fertilizer micro-dosing. This was with a view to evaluating the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing on leaf yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University during the 2015 late and 2016 early raining seasons. The experiment was a factorial experiment involving seasons, micro-dozing times at sowing and two weeks after sowing, five levels of fertilizer applied as Urea. Data were collected on vine length, number of vines, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, biomass and leaf yield. The fresh leaves were subsequently evaluated at time of harvest for proximate and phyto-chemical contents. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effec
Wilt is a serious problem in castor cultivation in Gujarat. Systematic work has not been done so far on this important pathogen under South Gujarat condition. Looking to the seriousness of this disease and economic important of the crop in this area. Generate necessary information for suitable management measure to minimize crop losses and developing scientific information on the following objectives:  Efficacy of native bio-agents against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini  Efficacy of botanicals against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini  Effect of different organic manure/cakes against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ricini  Management of wilt under pot condition
The genotypes CHFRG-10, CHFRG-22, CHFRG-28 and CHFRG-30 were found to be superior for the most of the yield components and fruit quality traits. High PCV and GCV, heritability, genetic gain were observed for vine length, number of node per vine, number of node to first pistillate flower appearance, pedicel length, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, and yield per plant. Correlation studies indicated that fruit yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with vine length, number of node per vine, crop duration, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruit per plant and an average fruit weight however negative association was established with days to first staminate flower anthesis and pistillate flower anthesis. Maximum positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant was imposed by number of fruit per plant, vine length, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first staminate flower anthesis, days to first pistillate flower anthesis and days to 50% emergence which were observed as the most important traits affecting fruit yield per plant and high negative direct effect was observed for number of node per vine, internodal length and fruit diameter.