Nutrition is a key factor in the dairy cattle performance. The large variation in dairy cattle production is dependent on the nutrition. As a consequence, the objectives of this book were to evaluate the effects of nutritional, and some environmental conditions (expressed as Temperature-Humidity index THI) on productive performance in Holstein cattle in some Arab countries (Sudan - Lebanon and Kuwait). on feed intake, digestion coefficient of nutrients, rumen pH, rumination, milk production and composition and some reproduction parameters. We propose mechanisms that can be impact either in milk production or quality and/or reproduction. Our performance results indicate that the interaction between nutrition and environment is very important effective factor on feed intake and digestibility. As well as on animal production (milk yield, energy corrected milk, fat corrected milk, milk yield 305-day, energy corrected milk 305-day, fat corrected milk 305-day, peak of milk and milk constituents) and reproduction (days open, conception rate, pregnancy rate and calving interval) performance.
Being a phosphorous storage and energy source, phytic acid is an important organic compound. Phytic acid has many benefits in terms of health, such as being an antioxidant. Even though phytic acid is beneficial source, it can be dangerous due to its ability related to binding minerals. At this point, it is important to know the effect of phytic acid. The present book will be of use for researchers and students keen on studying the structure, sources, and functions of phytic acid. The book explains history of phytates, physiological functions of phytates, chemical structure of phytic acid, the effect of phytic acid, sources of phytic acid, and finally the effects of some technological processes on the concentration of phytic acid in details.
Among the various N,P,K level studied, the highest value for main vine length and internodal length was recorded with 175:70:70 NPK Kg ha-1 (F3), consequently the lowest values were recorded for floral parameters viz., days taken for opening of first male flower and days taken for opening of first female flower with 125:50:50NPK Kg ha-1 (F1). The application of 150:60:60 NPK Kg ha-1 (F2) recorded the highest values for the parameters number of nodes per vine, number of primary branches per vine, number of fruits per vine, fruit length, fruit diameter, yield per vine, yield per plot, total yield, number of seeds per fruit, fruit retention percentage, 100 seed weight, ascorbic acid content, protein content, reducing sugars, total sugars and total soluble solids and recorded lowest values for node at which first male flower appeared, node at which first female flower appeared , days taken to first harvest and days taken from fruit set to marketable maturity.
The land is a key environment and natural resource assets in Agriculture. It is also the case that the viability of arable land has a direct relationship with productivity. Land degradation caused by soil erosion is a major threat to the sustainability of agriculture. Soil erosion is one of the main forms of land degradation in Ghana, a problem that has been studied and researched by numerous scholars both local and abroad. Since 2006, the agricultural sector´s contribution to Gross Domestic Product has declined, possibly because of the negative effects of land degradation i.e. soil erosion challenges among others. The paper assesses the cost of land or soil degradation in the Agricultural Sector and its effect on the economy of Ghana with a focus on the on-site effects of soil erosion on agricultural productivity. The study draws on the productivity loss and nutrient replacement cost approaches in estimating the cost of soil degradation in the agricultural sector.
In recent years, Alternative Food Networks (AFNs) have been a key issue both in the scientific community and in public debates. This is due to their profound implications for rural development, local sustainability, and bio-economics. This edited collection discusses what the main determinants of the participation of operators - both consumers and producers - in AFNs are, what the conditions for their sustainability are, what their social and environmental effects are, and how they are distributed geographically. Further discussions include the effect of AFNs in structuring the food chain and how AFNs can be successfully scaled up. The authors explicitly take an interdisciplinary approach to analyse AFNs from different perspectives, using as an example the Italian region of Piedmont, a particularly interesting case study due to the diffusion of AFNs in the area, as well as due to the fact that it was in this region that the ´Slow Food´ movement originated.
The current study was carried out to investigate the effect of some processing methods on the quality characteristics of some fish species obtained from Wadi EI-Ryan Lake, at Fayoum Governorate, Egypt. The study was classified into two parts. The first part deals with the quality characteristics and safety of hot and cold smoked Catfish (Clarias gariepinus), while the second one devoted to studying effects of frying and grilling cooking methods on quality properties and amino acid composition of Mullet fish (Mugil cephalus). Determinations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that the concentrations of PAHs in cold and hot smoked samples were lower than the maximum tolerable risk limits as set by European Commission Regulation. Hot smoking method could be considered more safer and deemed fit for human consumption than cold smoking.Regarding amino acids; fresh Mullet fish steaks had good protein quality as indicated by high of total amino acids (TAA), total essential amino acids (EAA), essential amino acids index (EAAI), and biological value (B.V.%).
Land use and land cover changes are more likely to be the most noteworthy challenge facing the Earth over the next century. Land systems are acknowledged as resulting from the dynamic interactions within the socio-ecological system. It represents the terrestrial component of the Earth system and encompasses all processes and activities related to the human use of land, including socio-economic, technological and organizational investments and arrangements, as well as the benefits gained from land and the unintended social and ecological outcomes of societal activities. Different soil properties have been used to assess soil quality. Soil properties sensitive to variation in management are needed to compare the effects of management practices on soil over time
Food consists of several components of a complex structure and different shapes to suit different tastes of consumers. Different food establishments are planning to develop new components of dairy products, whether in the microbiological, chemical characteristics or functional properties.A protein is considered the most important component of milk, in addition to its role in nutrition, it is a food component which works to improve the functional properties of the structure, stability and handling of dairy products. The functional characteristics of the protein in milk reflects the behavior of protein in the diet during the different manufacturing processes. Of the most important adjustment methods that can be used to modify the protein, the use of enzymes, and the transglutaminase is the most important enzymes used.The study focused on buffalo milk, the main type of milk consumed in Egypt, and, consequently, on the casein which considered the main component of the protein in milk.This study was conducted in two parts.Part I: Some functional properties of casein as a function of Transglutaminase. The second part is Manufacture of yoghurt and effects of cross-linking by TGase.
Edible films are interesting and often essential complementary means for controlling the quality and stability of numerous food products. There are many potential uses of edible films (e.g. wrapping various products, individual protection of dried fruits, meat and fish, control of internal moisture transfer in pizzas, pies, etc.) which are based on properties of the films (e.g. organoleptic, mechanical, gas and solute barrier). Polysaccharide (cellulose, starch, dextrin, vegetable and other gums, etc) and protein (whey protein, soya protein, gelatin, gluten, casein, etc) based films have suitable mechanical and organoleptic properties, while wax (beeswax, carnauba wax, etc) and lipid or lipid derivative films have enhanced water vapor barrier properties. The film-forming technology, solvent characteristics, plasticizing agents, temperature effects, solvent evaporation rate, coating operation and usage conditions of the film (relative humidity, temperature) can also substantially modify the ultimate properties of the film.
Wheat ( Triticum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant in the Poacae (Gramineae) family and settles in the Triticeae (Hordeae) subfamily. It is of great ethnobotanical importance. Other cereal crops such as maize, rice, barley, and millet are also domesticated from this family. Together they constitute the most economically important plant family in modern times, providing food, forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch), and fuel (ethanol) to support a diverse range of human activities. In recent years, however, due to the awareness of gluten in wheat-based diet, there has been a rise in interest in its wild relatives and landraces as new resources for consumption. Accordingly, crop scientists have also begun to reexamine the origin, evolution, and unique characteristics of cultured and non-cultured hulled wheats. Although hulled wheats, which include einkorn, emmer, wild emmer, spelta, macha, and vavilovii, are still grown in limited quantities on the higher areas of Turkey, Italy, Germany, Morocco, Israel, and Balkan countries, they have been sought after for their health promoting effects. However, despite the newfound popularity of hulled wheats in the lay communities, there lacks a critically reviewed resource for the researchers and professionals who wish to further develop these crop species. In this book, we provide an overview of hulled wheats with special attention to genetic diversities, conservation, and applications.