Agroforestry and soil erosion control have an important role to play in both food security and the conservation of the environment. By integrating tree growing with crop production, we can address problems of poor agricultural production, worsening wood shortages and environmental degradation. A structured questionnaire, Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA), oral histories, semi-structured interview, participant observation, botanical survey and review of secondary data were the main data collection methods employed in this study. Results indicate that there is a contribution made by agroforestry and soil erosion control in household food security in the four visited villages in Lushoto district. The study has revealed that there is a continuing deforestation in the Shagayu natural forestry despite the fact that households practice agroforestry. There is also the problem of land infertility in the upland farms and therefore production is concentrated in the lowland farms. Nevertheless, many households are food insecure and they need food aid.
Salicornia is cultivated in the semi-arid region, saline and sodic soils. Salicornia plant is gaining pronounce importance as it can tolerate salinity. With climate change, water scarcity and the never ending demands of the growing population in India, this experiment on Effect of irrigation and date of sowing on seed yield and component of Salicornia will set a paradigm to signify the ability of Salicornia as a productive crop. For getting higher yield of salicornia and ultimately the net returns from the extremely saline soil and water conditions, sowing of the salicornia during either 3rd week of June or 1st week of July and irrigating the crop at 0.8 IW/CPE ratio (8-10 irrigation) is essential. Among all the plant nutrients, content of Fe (Iron) and Na (Sodium) in salicornia was considerably higher as compared to the other nutrients.
Prunus Africana, (syn. Pygeum Africana) is an indigenous tree species with natural occurrence in the upland rainforests from West to South Africa and moist Brachystegia woodlands. In most cases in Tanzania, it occurs in tropical mountain forests receiving high rainfall, at altitudes of 1500-2300 m.a.s. It is found growing naturally in Kilimanjaro, Pare, East & West Usambaras, Nguru, and the Uluguru Mountains. The trees also found in Mufindi and Mahenge escarpments. The species has also been recorded in the Udzungwa Mountains, Southern Highlands, Geita, Bukoba and Kondoa. Findings show that Prunus Africana is found in some Afromontane forests in Tanzania but it has not been possible to find in some other forest. In Tanzania, Prunus Africana ranges from the Eastern Mountains forests and along the rift valley. Research also shows that these Afromontane forests where Prunus Africana is found are at high risks of disappearing because of the main threats including illegal logging, fire and agricultural encroachment. Other threats to these forests include the collection of firewood, charcoal production, hunting, and gathering plants for medicine.
Master´s Thesis from the year 2017 in the subject Agrarian Studies, Makerere University (Agricultural and environmental sciences), course: MSc. Plant Breeding and Seed Systems, language: English, abstract: Seed market is becoming global and globalization is growing very fast. To compete favourably in this new global seed world, quality and cost are and will certainly continue to be the key issues. The presence of counterfeit seed in Uganda seed market has been reported. Studies need to be conducted to investigate at which level along the seed value chain the deterioration in quality occurs. The current study assessed the change in quality of hybrid maize seed as it is transferred from seed companies (when seed has been processed and packaged) to agro-dealers. Specific objectives of the study were to determine the levels of phenotypic and genotypic variation in hybrid maize seed from seed companies and agro-dealers. A total of 120 samples of four hybrid maize varieties (improved varieties most favored by farmers) used in this study were collected from agro-dealers in 15 districts and from 3 seed companies. Alpha lattice design with two replications has been used. Data was collected on 33 morphological traits and all the 120 samples were genotyped using 128 SNP markers. The genetic distance analysis showed that agro-dealers´ samples from Iganga, Masindi, Luwero, Soroti and Bukedea had high seed quality (genetically and phenotypically pure and similar to the seed companies´ seed) for all the hybrids under the study, whereas samples from Lira, Hoima, Mubende, Mityana, Gulu, Kiboga and Bugiri had high rate of variation/contamination among the agro-dealer samples. In addition, the study showed that the further the agro-dealers are from the seed companies, the more contaminated the seeds are. Therefore, further studies should be conducted to investigate the causes of variation in seed quality between seed lots at the seed company level, and to verify the agro-dealers´ behavior in the districts with high rates of seed contamination.
Crop yield can be increased by providing irrigation at suitable time intervals in correct proportions. For any crop, to get maximum yield, scheduled fertilizer application is highly inevitable. Fertigation is a method of fertilizer application in which fertilizer is incorporated with the irrigation water and applied through micro irrigation systems, so that the fertilizer solution is distributed evenly throughout the field. Automated fertigation system is a highly advanced system for water and fertilizer administration in irrigated agriculture. Automatic fertigation allows farmers to deliver adequate nutrient quantity and concentration with irrigation water to active plant root area throughout the growing season thereby saving labour, money and time, with the help of an automated mechanism. This book portrays a timer based automated fertigation system which works with the help of logical circuits. The developed system operates using solar panel along with a battery, which makes the system operations possible even without sunshine for a few days.