Guava (Psidium guajava L.), belongs to the family Myrtaceae. It is called as ´´apple of the tropics´´, and grown successfully throughout tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of India. Guava is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C containing two to five times more than oranges and ten times more than tomato. It is rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and iron which are necessary for human health. It is also one of the most important fruits trees grown in India which has just comparative low cost of fruit production combined with high nutritive values makes it ideal desert fruit for the common man.
Presents a reference on various aspects of the isolation and cultivation of marine and freshwater algae, including seaweeds. This book covers history, media preparation, isolation and purification, mass culturing techniques, cell counting and growth measurement techniques, and reviews on topics and applications of algal culture techniques.
The objective of evaluate growth, enzyme activity, metabolic responses, and hematological parameters in pacamã catfish (Lophiosilurus alexandri). Four diets with different levels of substitution of the cornmeal (CM) by guava meal (GV) 0, 33, 66, and 100% were tested and the feeding rate was 6% of the total body weight. A total of 160 experimental fish with an average initial weight of 16.29 g were distributed in 16 aquaria and fed for 45 days. Growth, metabolic, and hematological parameters, and digestive enzyme activity were evaluated at the end of the experiment. The level of substitution of 100% of the growth parameters were affected by the substitution of CM by GM. No effect was recorded in survival (P0.05). The values referring to the metabolic profile and hematological parameters variables were changed when CM was substituted by GM (P0.05). The digestive enzyme activities were influenced by the substitution of CM by GM (P0.05). The CM may be replaced by GM in up to 66% in diets for pacamã catfish without impairing their performance, metabolism, hematology, or digestive enzyme activity.
Evaluation of lentil genotypes for resistance to salt stress is very important. Consequently, the aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of salt stress on seedling emergence and early seedling growth of lentil genotypes. The book consisted of evaluations of 10 genotypes of lentil at four levels of salinity viz. 0.0 mM, 20 mM, 40 mM and 60 mM NaCl. 15 seeds of each genotype were sown in sterilized petridishes layered with autoclaved germination papers. The experiment was terminated on the 8th day and observations were recorded on germination percentage and various seedling traits. The genotypes exhibited significant differences for majority of traits and pooled ANOVA indicated significant differences among genotypes, salinity levels as well as the interactions between genotype x salinity levels. In general, the PCV values were higher than GCV values for all the characters. Heritability was generally high for plumule fresh weight, radicle length and seedling length across the salinity levels. Genetic advance as percentage of mean was highest for plumule to radicle length ratio followed by radicle length.
Time utilization was observed in 16 growth regulator treatments of callus induction and 18 growth regulator treatments of regeneration. Data of callus induction and regeneration were analyzed with factorial completely randomized design (FCRD). The highest callus induction frequency was recorded in Azucena into callus induction treatment T4 containing 2, 4-D 2 mg/l + Kinetin 1 mg/l (49.99%) followed by in Moroberekan into callus induction treatment T11 containing 2, 4-D 1 mg/l + NAA 2 mg/l + Kinetin 0.5 mg/l (48.64%) in 17 weeks and 9 weeks. The highest shoot regeneration frequency was recorded in Azucena into shoot regeneration treatment T10 containing Kinetin 0.5 mg/l + BAP 2 mg/l + NAA 1 mg/l (83.33%) in 28 days followed by Moroberekan into shoot regeneration treatment T16 containing Kinetin 2 mg/l + BAP 1 mg/l + NAA 1 mg/l (80.0%) in 35 days. The highest plantlet regeneration frequency was recorded in Moroberekan into plantlet regeneration treatment T16 containing Kinetin 2 mg/l + BAP 1 mg/l + NAA 1 mg/l (80.0%) in 35 days followed by plantlet regeneration treatment T10 containing Kinetin 0.5 mg/l + BAP 2 mg/l + NAA 1 mg/l (55.55%) in 21 days.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Being a septuagenarian and having been a beekeeper on and off for over 60 years I have seen the changes in the world both good and bad. I have seen the countryside change from flowering hay meadows to billiard table top over grazed fields. Corn fields with their attendant flowering weeds changed to chemically managed mono-crops. Hedgerows laid and managed with an abundance of flowering shrubs have become annually machine cropped bristle rows, where biennial flowering shrubs like hawthorn never have a second year growth to flower. Worst of all I have seen beekeeping following some of those same trends. Beekeeping is now carried out in an almost religion based way. An established hierarchy setting down the true ways, not based on the bees´ need but the beekeepers´ return, with chemicals that pollute, recycled wax that contaminates. Top bar hives along with other ways such as sun hives offer a gentler way. We have a duty to our bees, we must look at our bees as our salvation not another prize in our greed. Beekeepers must be in the forefront of change for nature, not mere puppets in some commercial enterprise.
Effect of nutrients and terminal clipping on growth and yield of summer sesame was carried out at Agriculture College Farm, Nagpur during 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three nutrient treatments viz. N1 (RDF), N2 (RDF + ZnSO4), N3 (RDF + FeSO4) and four clipping treatments viz. C0(no clipping), C1(clipping at 25 DAS), C2(clipping at 35 DAS), C3(clipping at 45 DAS). There were 12 treatment combinations replicated thrice. The results of the study indicated that, significantly superior plant height, no. of branches, dry matter accumulation,no. of capsules, seed yield plant-1, seed yield kg ha-1 & oil yield kg ha-1 was recorded in nutrient treatments N2(RDF+ZnSO4) followed by N3 (RDF+FeSO4) over N1(RDF).Whereas, in clipping treatments plant height was significantly superior in C0(no clipping), no.of branches, no.of capsules, seed yield plant-1, seed yield kg ha-1 & oil yield kg ha-1 in C2(clipping at 35 DAS) followed by C1(clipping at 25 DAS) and C3(clipping at 45 DAS). GMR,NMR & B:C ratio were highest in N2 (RDF + ZnSO4) and clipping C2(clipping at 35 DAS). Fertility status was improved due to application of RDF + ZnSO4 & RDF + FeSO4.
Der Beitrag der Landwirtschaft zur wirtschaftlichen Entwicklung in Guatemala durch Wertschöpfungsketten und agricultural growth linkages:International Rural Development Jochen Dürr
Implications of India´s Judicial System of Economic and Agricultural Growth and Poverty Reduction:Inaugurat Disertation zur Erlangung des Grades Dr. agr. der Hohen Landwirtschaftlichen Fakultät der Rheinischen Friedrich-Wilhelm-Universität zu Bonn Wolfgang K Köhling