India is largely occupies area of fenugreek with high production. The extent of yield mainly depends on various environmental factors and cultural practices. The factors like optimum spacing play an important role for achieving maximum yield per unit area. Normally, the fenugreek is sown by broadcasting which is common practice adopted by the farmer in Gujarat. This method dose not facilitates the farm operations viz., inter cultivation, weeding etc. Precise information regarding appropriate scheduling of irrigation based on IW/CPE ratio and method of sowing for fenugreek is meagre. Keeping in view the above considerations, comprehensive research programme was planned to study the judicious use of irrigation water which may provide information not only on water use by crop but also when to irrigate and to find out suitable method of sowing for fenugreek.
Micronutrients are very much essential for growth, development and reproduction of plants and are required by plants in very small quantities, yet they are very effective in regulating plant growth, development and reproduction due to enzymatic action. Different crops require varied quantities of micronutrients at different growth stages. Multiple cropping with high yielding varieties of crop is one of the most important cause of removal of micronutrients from soil. Under deficiency of micronutrients, the growth of plant is hampered; the plants are subjected to attack by diseases and the yield of crop decreases accordingly. Nutrients can be applied both by conventional methods and by foliar application methods. Foliar application methods make nutrients promptly available, therefore this peculiar mode of feeding make this mode of nutrient application better as compared to soil application.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and also provide for sustenance in stressful environment. Agro-ecosystems of many regions around the globe are affected by multi-stress. Major limiting factors affecting the agricultural productivity worldwide are environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield they introduce devastating impact on plant growth as well. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic association with the microbes in the rhizosphere. Naturally existing plant-microbe interaction facilitates survival of plants under these stressful conditions. Rhizosphere consists of many groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes which assist plants in coping with multiple stresses and in plant growth as well. These microbes help in stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food security problems. The proposed book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidates various mechanisms in rhizosphere of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity. The book discusses rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Both volumes of the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement, contains chapters which cover a broad overview of plant growth promoting activities of microbes. This proposed book also highlights the contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc-solubilizing microbes from rhizospheric soil to develop efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance the food and nutritional security. With the given content and layout the proposed book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture. It will be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. Timely, this edited and research book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material from basic to advance findings on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability.
Mustard has been widely cultivated during rabi season in the country and the yield level is considerably higher due to its higher water and fertilizer use efficiencies.The future of this crop is bright in India because the Government of India has provided, various support and incentive programs for oilseed growers. Growth, development and final yield are mainly affected by the space available to plants. So, it is imperative to adjust plant population through planting method. Weeds are one of the major constraints for the poor yield of mustard crop as they compete with the crop plants for moisture, nutrients, light and space. So, proper weed management is necessary for obtaining higher yield. In this context, this book identifies the proper planting methods and weed management practices for getting higher yield as well as maximum economic benefits. All the latest findings is also added in this text. The book contains the latest, authoritative and readily usable information on mustard crop.
The book gives an insight into DAFF´s Revitalisation of the Agriculture and AgroProcessing Value Chain (RAAVC) and the National Development Plan (NDP) as a vehicle through which economic growth and job creation will be driven in South Africa. Hence this investigation into specific agricultural programmes and projects targeted at food security issues and employment in Jericho in the North West Province of South Africa. The books also consider the prerequisites for improved cooperatives - PPPs model which can improve internal controls and lessen burden on already scarce government resources. The cooperatives recommended for provision of management training; proper mentorship programmes, back-up energy source generator in case of power failure or cable theft; installation and maintenance of the fence to discourage animals destroying the vegetables; binding and PPPs contracts with clear roles and responsibilities,before any developments and funding other items. To enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of cooperatives, the book recommends that the policymakers and agencies should be encouraged to develop enough developmental programs to enhance the sustainability of the cooperatives.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
The study evaluated the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin; and assess the growth response of fluted pumpkin to different fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application, also to determine the influence of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on vegetative yield of fluted pumpkin; and to assess the nutrient composition response of fluted pumpkin to fertilizer micro-dosing. This was with a view to evaluating the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing on leaf yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University during the 2015 late and 2016 early raining seasons. The experiment was a factorial experiment involving seasons, micro-dozing times at sowing and two weeks after sowing, five levels of fertilizer applied as Urea. Data were collected on vine length, number of vines, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, biomass and leaf yield. The fresh leaves were subsequently evaluated at time of harvest for proximate and phyto-chemical contents. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effec
Fungal nanobionics has great prospects for developing new products with industrial, agriculture, medicine and consumer applications in a wide range of sectors. The fields of chemical engineering, agri-food, biochemical, pharmaceuticals, diagnostics and medical device development all employ fungal products, with fungal nanomaterials currently used in a wide range of applications, ranging from drug development to food industry and agricultural sector. The fungal agents emerge as an environmentally friendly, clean, non-toxic agent for the biogenic metal nanoparticles and employs both intracellular and extracellular methods. The simplicity of scaling up and downstream processing and the presence of fungal mycelia affording an increased surface area provide key advantages. In addition, the larger spectrum of synthesized nanoparticle morphologies and the substantially faster biosynthesis rate in cell-free filtrate (due to the higher amount of proteins secreted in fungi) make this a particularly enticing route. Understanding the diversity of fungi in assorted ecosystems, as well as their interactions with other microorganisms, animals and plants, is essential to underpin real and innovative technological developments and the applications of metal nanoparticles in many disciplines including agriculture, catalysis, and biomedical biosensors. Importantly, biogenic fungal nanoparticles show significant synergistic characteristics when combined with antibiotics and fungicides to offer substantially greater resistance to microbial growth and applications in nanomedicine ranging from topical ointments and bandages for wound healing to coated stents.
Sustainable management of soils is an important global issue of the 21 st century. Feeding roughly 8 billion people with an environmentally sustainable production system is a major challenge, especially considering the fact that 10% of the world´s population at risk of hunger and 25% at risk of malnutrition. Accordingly, the 68th United Nations (UN) general assembly declared 2016 the ´´International Year of Pulses´´ to raise awareness and to celebrate the role of pulses in human nutrition and welfare. Likewise, the assembly declared the year 2015 as the ´´International Year of Soils´´ to promote awareness of the role of ´´healthy soils for a healthy life´´ and the International Union of Soil Science (IUSS) has declared 2015-2024 as the International Decade of Soils. Including legumes in cropping systems is an important toward advancing soil sustainability, food and nutritional security without compromising soil quality or its production potential. Several textbooks and edited volumes are currently available on general soil fertility or on legumes but´ to date´ none have been dedicated to the study of ´´Legumes for Soil Health and Sustainable Management´´ . This is important aspect, as the soil, the epidermis of the Earth (geoderma)´ is the major component of the terrestrial biosphere. This book explores the impacts of legumes on soil health and sustainability, structure and functioning of agro-ecosystems, agronomic productivity and food security, BNF, microbial transformation of soil N and P, plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria, biofertilizers, etc. With the advent of fertilizers, legumes have been sidelined since World War II, which has produced serious consequences for soils and the environment alike. Therefore, legume-based rational cropping/soil management practices must support environmentally and economically sustainable agroecosystems based on (sequential) rotation and intercropping considerations to restore soil health and sustainability. All chapters are amply illustrated with appropriately placed data, tables, figures, and photographs, and supported with extensive and cutting-edge references. The editors have provided a roadmap for the sustainable development of legumes for food and nutritional security and soil sustainability in agricultural systems, offering a unique resource for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, as well as undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, agronomy, ecology, and the environmental sciences.