This book examines the development of innovative modern methodologies towards augmenting conventional plant breeding for the production of new crop varieties, under the increasingly limiting environmental and cultivation factors, to achieve sustainable agricultural production and enhanced food security. Two volumes of Advances in Plant Breeding Strategies were published in 2015 and 2016, respectively; Volume 1: Breeding, Biotechnology and Molecular Tools and Volume 2: Agronomic, Abiotic and Biotic Stress Traits. This is Volume 3: Fruits, which is focused on advances in breeding strategies for the improvement of individual fruit crops. It consists of 23 chapters grouped into three parts, according to distribution classification of fruit trees: Part I, Temperate Fruits, Part II, Subtropical Fruits, and Part III, Tropical Fruits. Each chapter comprehensively reviews the modern literature on the subject and reflects the authors´ own experience.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Micronutrients are very much essential for growth, development and reproduction of plants and are required by plants in very small quantities, yet they are very effective in regulating plant growth, development and reproduction due to enzymatic action. Different crops require varied quantities of micronutrients at different growth stages. Multiple cropping with high yielding varieties of crop is one of the most important cause of removal of micronutrients from soil. Under deficiency of micronutrients, the growth of plant is hampered; the plants are subjected to attack by diseases and the yield of crop decreases accordingly. Nutrients can be applied both by conventional methods and by foliar application methods. Foliar application methods make nutrients promptly available, therefore this peculiar mode of feeding make this mode of nutrient application better as compared to soil application.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and also provide for sustenance in stressful environment. Agro-ecosystems of many regions around the globe are affected by multi-stress. Major limiting factors affecting the agricultural productivity worldwide are environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield they introduce devastating impact on plant growth as well. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic association with the microbes in the rhizosphere. Naturally existing plant-microbe interaction facilitates survival of plants under these stressful conditions. Rhizosphere consists of many groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes which assist plants in coping with multiple stresses and in plant growth as well. These microbes help in stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food security problems. The proposed book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidates various mechanisms in rhizosphere of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity. The book discusses rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Both volumes of the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement, contains chapters which cover a broad overview of plant growth promoting activities of microbes. This proposed book also highlights the contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc-solubilizing microbes from rhizospheric soil to develop efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance the food and nutritional security. With the given content and layout the proposed book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture. It will be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. Timely, this edited and research book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material from basic to advance findings on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability.
The genotypes CHFRG-10, CHFRG-22, CHFRG-28 and CHFRG-30 were found to be superior for the most of the yield components and fruit quality traits. High PCV and GCV, heritability, genetic gain were observed for vine length, number of node per vine, number of node to first pistillate flower appearance, pedicel length, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, and yield per plant. Correlation studies indicated that fruit yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with vine length, number of node per vine, crop duration, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruit per plant and an average fruit weight however negative association was established with days to first staminate flower anthesis and pistillate flower anthesis. Maximum positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant was imposed by number of fruit per plant, vine length, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first staminate flower anthesis, days to first pistillate flower anthesis and days to 50% emergence which were observed as the most important traits affecting fruit yield per plant and high negative direct effect was observed for number of node per vine, internodal length and fruit diameter.
Mustard has been widely cultivated during rabi season in the country and the yield level is considerably higher due to its higher water and fertilizer use efficiencies.The future of this crop is bright in India because the Government of India has provided, various support and incentive programs for oilseed growers. Growth, development and final yield are mainly affected by the space available to plants. So, it is imperative to adjust plant population through planting method. Weeds are one of the major constraints for the poor yield of mustard crop as they compete with the crop plants for moisture, nutrients, light and space. So, proper weed management is necessary for obtaining higher yield. In this context, this book identifies the proper planting methods and weed management practices for getting higher yield as well as maximum economic benefits. All the latest findings is also added in this text. The book contains the latest, authoritative and readily usable information on mustard crop.
Land and water scarcity is the burning issue worldwide. Hence, the popularity and utilization of aquaponic system is increasing day by day. Aquaponic, the perfect engineering of ecology, is the combination of aquaculture and hydroponic cultivation of plants (hydroponic vegetables, flower, and/or herb) in a re-circulating system, utilizing the nutrients present in the aquaculture effluents to produce plants with commercial value. Within this synergistic interaction, the respective ecological weakness of aquaculture and hydroponics are converted into strength. Though the concept of modern aquaponic system has been developed in the late 70s and early 80s, but very new in Bangladesh. Aquaponics can be considered a sustainable agricultural production system as it does not deplete any non-renewable resources that are essential to agriculture in order to sustain the agricultural practices. Here, an experiment is described which was conducted to assess the water spinach production in aquaponic system using two different media at the Mini Hatchery Building in the southern side of the Faculty of Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh from June to september 2014.
The book attempt to address, the isolation of stress induced promoters from IR-32 and IR- 72 varieties, the detailed methodology followed for stress induction and isolation of promoters has been extensively discussed. In addition briefly discussed the stress biology of plant and its importance in hybrid development. The book lights on sequential steps for isolation of promoters and cloning technologies and validation of clones has been discussed thoroughly.
The experiment was laid out in a Factorial randomized block design with twenty cowpea genotypes for four aluminium (0, 20, 40, 60 ppm) treatments and three replications. Based on mean performance the genotypes T-15, T-13 and T-2 were found to be superior for the most of the plant characteristics suggesting that they can be used for developing aluminium toxicity tolerant genotype. Similarly, T-7, T-4 and T-12were found to be superior for yield components. So, these genotypes were promising and may be used as a parental source in any breeding programme. Among all aluminium treatment, 20 ppm was best for plant characteristics whereas, for others control (0 ppm) performs better. SDS-PAGE data analysis provides information that protein banding pattern could not be affected by aluminium treatment in the soil.
Furundu (fermented Hibiscus Sabdariffa seeds) is an interesting example of a high protein substitute produced by fermentation in Sudan, a low-cost method of food preservation which markedly improves the digestibility, nutritive value and flavors of the raw seed. but, The seeds of the plant contain toxic principals thus has no economic value. Villagers in production regions ferment the seeds into Furundu and consume it. It is not yet fully understood whether or not such fermentation has a detoxifying action of the seed components. Epidemiological data might indicate the higher incidence of some morbid states in the consumption areas of Furundu. However, conducting some in vivo toxicological investigation might be useful in generating basic information on the wholesomeness of Furundu as a staple or famine food.