Agricultural work in India is carried out by using manual, animal and mechanical power sources.In Chhattisgarh state, the situation is not different. The state is far behind in mechanization of farm operations with only 32,000 tractors in the state. About 75 per cent farmers are dependent on animal power for farm operations with 8 million draught animals. In this region, bullocks and he buffaloes are the major power sources. The land holdings patterns of Chhattisgarh in general are small and marginal. The farmers of this state have traditional animal drawn implements, which in most of the cases have low capacity, do not match with the draught animal power source and ultimately affect the agricultural operations. Hence development of animal drawn implements has a vital role to play in partial mechanization of the farms in the state to increase the efficiency and better utilization of draught animals. The prototype light weight five row animal drawn multi crop planter was design, developed and evaluated. This book provides information for seeding chick pea, green gram, pigeon pea, groundnut, wheat seed with fertilizer application.
Guava (Psidium guajava L.), belongs to the family Myrtaceae. It is called as ´´apple of the tropics´´, and grown successfully throughout tropical and sub-tropical climatic regions of India. Guava is one of the richest natural sources of vitamin C containing two to five times more than oranges and ten times more than tomato. It is rich sources of calcium, phosphorous and iron which are necessary for human health. It is also one of the most important fruits trees grown in India which has just comparative low cost of fruit production combined with high nutritive values makes it ideal desert fruit for the common man.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
The European Russian forests are described within the boreal, hemiboreal and nemoral forest regions; floodplain forests are also characterized. The book presents a classification and description of forest vegetation, soil characteristic and assessments of plant diversity and successional status of forest plant communities. Structure and composition of vegetation in early- and late-successional forests are analyzed with an emphasis on forests in State Nature reserves. Features of the historical land-use, such as slash-and-burn, forest cutting, grazing, influence of fires on forest ecosystems, etc. are discussed for each forest region. The book contains an analysis of the general dynamics of the forest cover during the last two decades based on satellite image processing. The main stages of transformation of forest landscapes in European Russia during the Holocene are briefly reviewed in connection with the development of the production economy of people.
In the 1920s, Justin Christofleau invented a system of electroculture which proved so efficient that it increased crops in considerable proportions (up to 200%) without any chemical fertilizer of any kind. It also prevented diseases and helped rejuvenate plants, and, among other advantages, the germination of seeds was better and shorter, and crops were much hastened. Furthermore, electroculture proved especially suitable in drought-stricken regions. Justin Christofleau explained in his book how his system worked and how to do it, with schemas and pictures. Almost a century later, we are pleased to present again this precious information to everybody, including farmers, gardeners, agronomist, students and anyone concerned about food, health and environment.
Survey for fungi associated with leaf spots of sugarcane in Chittoor and Nellore Districts of Andhra Pradesh during 1986-87 revealed that 26 species of fungi belonging to 10 genera were found associated with leaf spots of sugarcane. The leaf spots found were minor ones and their incidence was meagre ranging from 1 to 3 per cent in both the districts. In common, the incidence was more in ratoon crop and in the plant crop aged more than 6 months. The different types of minor leaf spots found on sugarcane in the 2 districts of chittoor and Nellore were described.
The author was amazed in the studies of rainforest endophytes of the Team of Dr. Garry Strobel of Montana State University. She was curious if she could do the same works and hoped that she could isolate a nobel endophyte from the rainforest plants of Mt. Apo, Mindanao, Philippines. And indeed, she landed on exploring on her own the rainforest of Mt. Apo and was able to isolate thousands of endophytic microorganisms. She focused her research on the fungal endophytes alone and started working with 155 isolates. Since the author had previous works with FocTR4 in ´Cavendish Banana´, she tested the antagonistic ability of her isolates towards the Fusarium pathogen. She ended up with five potential fungal endophytes that showed efficacy in combating FocTR4. One highlight also of this research is the evaluation of TropRace TR1-4/ITS, a complex mineral product, that also showed promise for FocTR4 control.
Salinity is one of the most serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural crops, with adverse effects on germination, plant vigour and crop yield. However, the way in which salinity exerts its influence on these vital processes, whether it is through an osmotic effect or specific ion toxicity, is still not resolved.Our experimental results indicated that germination parameters viz., germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and relative water content were significantly reduced due to effect of ion stress induced by NaCl and water stress induced by PEG-8000. The -1.0MPa water potential was found to be a completely inhibitory for seed germination. Ionic stress was found more inhibitory than water stress. The photosynthetic parameters viz. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and quantum efficiency of PS-II also found to decreased significantly with increase stress induced by PEG-8000 and NaCl. Based on the results of the experiment, it seems that for tomato cv.GT-2 the ionic effect of salinity is more detrimental then osmotic
This book tells about the climate change related problem and their impact on food production. Wheat is the world´s most consumable cereal crop and its production is highly affected by high temperature mainly after reproductive stage or terminal stage. Canopy temperature depression is directly or indirectly affected by a number of physiological processes, therefore, is a good indicator of a genotyp´s fitness in a given environment and It is the most potential assay for heat tolerance of genotypes. Stay-green trait is the ability of plant to maintain its green leaf area or higher chlorophyll content for long duration in adverse environmental condition. This book shows that physiological characteristics such as canopy temperature depression and stay green traits can be use as selection criteria for stress tolerance by plant breeder. This type of selection is more accurate and efficient than selecting for yield performance only. Objectives of this experiment are to evaluation of morpho-physiological traits under terminal heat stress, yield and yield attributes as influenced by terminal heat stress and identification of traits associated with terminal heat stress resistance.
This book is published open access under a CC BY 3.0 IGO license. This open access book provides methods for the estimation of Biomass Water Equivalent (BEW), an essential step for improving the accuracy of area-wide soil moisture by cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNS). Three techniques are explained in detail: (i) traditional in-situ destructive sampling, (ii) satellite based remote sensing of plant surfaces, and (iii) biomass estimation via the use of the CRNS itself. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed along with step by step instructions on proper procedures and implementation.