The plant species that humans rely upon have an extended family of wild counterparts that are an important source of genetic diversity used to breed productive crops. These wild and weedy cousins are valuable as a resource for adapting our food, forage, industrial and other crops to climate change. Many wild plant species are also directly used, especially for revegetation, and as medicinal and ornamental plants. North America is rich in these wild plant genetic resources. This book is a valuable reference that describes the important crop wild relatives and wild utilized species found in Canada, the United States and Mexico. The book highlights efforts taken by these countries to conserve and use wild resources and provides essential information on best practices for collecting and conserving them. Numerous maps using up-to-date information and methods illustrate the distribution of important species, and supplement detailed description on the potential value these resources have to agriculture, as well as their conservation statuses and needs. There is broad recognition of the urgent need to conserve plant diversity; however, a small fraction of wild species is distinguished by their potential to support agricultural production. Many of these species are common, even weedy, and are easily overshadowed by rare or endangered plants. Nevertheless, because of their genetic proximity to agriculturally important crops or direct use, they deserve to be recognized, celebrated, conserved, and made available to support food and agricultural security. This comprehensive two-volume reference will be valuable for students and scientists interested in economic botany, and for practitioners at all levels tasked with conserving plant biodiversity. The chapters ´Public Education and Outreach Opportunities for Crop Wild Relatives in North America´ and ´Genetic Resources of Crop Wild Relatives - A Canadian Perspective´ are open access under a CC BY 4.0 license via link.springer.com.
This book presents advanced ecological techniques for crop cultivation and the chapters are arranged into four sections, namely general aspects, weeds, fungi, worms and microbes. Biocontrol is an ecological method of controlling pests such as insects, mites, weeds and plant diseases using other organisms. This practice has been used for centuries. Biocontrol relies on predation, parasitism, herbivory, or other natural mechanisms. Natural enemies of insect pests, also known as biological control agents, include predators, parasitoids, pathogens, and competitors.
This book summarise advanced knowledge and methods to recycle waste and fertilise soils in agriculture. In the near future, waste recycling will no longer be an option because natural resources become rare and costly, urbanisation is blooming and population is growing. In theory, most waste could be recycled. In practice, most waste is wasted. Remarkable aspects include the concepts of waste hierarchy eco-houses in smart cities, microbes and fungi for plant nutrition, and benefits of legume cultivation, biochar application and agropastoralism.
This book is an outcome of the keynote/lead papers presented by the experts from different disciplines in the Indian Ecological Society International Conference 2016 on ´´Natural Resource Management: Ecological Perspectives´´, organized at the Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology of Jammu, India. The book captures the essence of natural resource management from the intra and interdisciplinary perspectives of agricultural sciences (entomology, plant pathology, plant breeding and genetics, agronomy and soil sciences), social sciences (resource economics, agricultural extension education), medical sciences, and environmental sciences to stimulate discussion on the ecological perspectives of natural resource management. Wide-ranging topics on land and water resources, biodiversity, integrated farming system, role of microbes in agriculture, climate change and its impact on human health and crop pests, exploiting chemical ecology for pest management, human disease-causing pesticides, beneficial insects like lac insects, integrated pest management, resistance management in insect pests and Bt cotton , and diffusion and adoption of ecologically sustainable technologies at individual and organizational level are covered in the book.. The book will serve the professionals, researchers, academia, government, industry and students.
Wheat ( Triticum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant in the Poacae (Gramineae) family and settles in the Triticeae (Hordeae) subfamily. It is of great ethnobotanical importance. Other cereal crops such as maize, rice, barley, and millet are also domesticated from this family. Together they constitute the most economically important plant family in modern times, providing food, forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch), and fuel (ethanol) to support a diverse range of human activities. In recent years, however, due to the awareness of gluten in wheat-based diet, there has been a rise in interest in its wild relatives and landraces as new resources for consumption. Accordingly, crop scientists have also begun to reexamine the origin, evolution, and unique characteristics of cultured and non-cultured hulled wheats. Although hulled wheats, which include einkorn, emmer, wild emmer, spelta, macha, and vavilovii, are still grown in limited quantities on the higher areas of Turkey, Italy, Germany, Morocco, Israel, and Balkan countries, they have been sought after for their health promoting effects. However, despite the newfound popularity of hulled wheats in the lay communities, there lacks a critically reviewed resource for the researchers and professionals who wish to further develop these crop species. In this book, we provide an overview of hulled wheats with special attention to genetic diversities, conservation, and applications.
L´objectif de cette étude était d´améliorer la croissance et le développement de la tomate par l´utilisation des extraits, poudre ou résidus de Jatropha curcas L., de Crotalaria retusa, de Acacia albida Del. et de Spirulina platensis. En effet les extraits d´algues marines ont été longtemps utilisés en Asie et en Europe comme amendement dans le système de production agricole pour augmenter la croissance et le rendement des plantes. Quinze millilitres d´extraits des plantes suscitées additionnés à 485 ml d´eau et à une goutte de Tween 80 ont été appliqués par pulvérisation foliaire et 40 g de poudre ou de résidus comme amendements au niveau du sol par pot. D´une manière générale, l´utilisation des extraits ou poudre de Spirulina platensis a eu des effets significatifs sur les paramètres de croissance et de développement des plantes de tomate. Particulièrement l´amendement à la poudre et la pulvérisation foliaire aux extraits aqueux de Spirulina platensis ont augmenté respectivement la taille de 28,18% et de 19%, le diamètre de la tige de 29,16% et de 32,96%, la biomasse racinaire de 61,81% et de 43,18%, la biomasse des parties aériennes de 49,12% et de 48,29%.
As factory farming continues to dominate food production, a growing movement insists that a hands-on connection to food and the land that produces, it cannot be set aside. In Grown & Gathered, Matt and Lentil Purbrick present a sumptuously photographed guide to living alongside nature and returning to an ancient way of life. 365 days of notes from the authors will help you read the environment as the seasons change, and detailed guides to growing plants and raising animals will ensure that you build your farming practice on a stable foundation. True to the ancient way of life the authors seek to rediscover, Grown & Gathered also includes a chapter on the nuances of trading the goods you produce, rather than relying on monetary exchange. Finally, nearly one hundred recipes for everything from staples to full meals offer delicious ways to prepare the food you have produced from the ground up.
´´The genius of Hanson´s fascinating, inspiring, and entertaining book stems from the fact that it is not about how all kinds of things grow from seeds; it is about the seeds themselves.´´ --Mark Kurlansky, New York Times Book Review We live in a world of seeds. From our morning toast to the cotton in our clothes, they are quite literally the stuff and staff of life: supporting diets, economies, and civilizations around the globe. Just as the search for nutmeg and pepper drove the Age of Discovery, coffee beans fueled the Enlightenment and cottonseed sparked the Industrial Revolution. Seeds are fundamental objects of beauty, evolutionary wonders, and simple fascinations. Yet, despite their importance, seeds are often seen as commonplace, their extraordinary natural and human histories overlooked. Thanks to this stunning new book, they can be overlooked no more. This is a book of knowledge, adventure, and wonder, spun by an award-winning writer with both the charm of a fireside story-teller and the hard-won expertise of a field biologist. A fascinating scientific adventure, it is essential reading for anyone who loves to see a plant grow.
High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present-day high-capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops. However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit. High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with site-specific concepts, applications and results.
In Gelting hat sich die selbstgemachte Marmelade zum Verkaufsschlager entwickelt, in Otersen fallen Sonntagnachmittag die Rad-Ausflügler wegen der selbstgebackenen Kuchen ein und in Frabertsham halten morgens um sechs die ersten Berufspendler, um sich Proviant aus dem mutmaßlich kleinsten Vollsortimenter im Land zu holen: Jeder Dorfladen ist seine eigene kleine Welt. Mittlerweile gibt es hunderte davon. Landauf, landab, sind in den letzten Jahren moderne Tante-Emma-Geschäfte entstanden, die oft mehr bieten als nur eine Einkaufsmöglichkeit. Sie sind auch Café, Post und Apotheke, Treffpunkt und Vereinsheim ? sie sind eine neue Mitte. Gemeinsam sind diesen Dorfläden die Menschen, die dahinter stehen: Pfiffige, mutige Bürgerinnen und Bürger, die sich mit der fehlenden Nahversorgung in ihrer Mitte nicht mehr abfinden wollten. Sie planten, sammelten Geld, schlossen sich zu Bündnissen zusammen, renovierten, fanden Lieferanten und legten Sortiment und Preise fest. Ohne Impuls von oben, oft auch ohne finanzielle Unterstützung, dafür mit viel ehrenamtlichem Einsatz und der Bereitschaft, neue Wege auszuprobieren. Das Beste daran: Es kann funktionieren, und so manche Geschichte vom Land taugt zum Vorbild auch für Städter. Von diesen Menschen, ihren Ideen und was sie daraus machten, handelt dieses Buch. Die Autorin hat Dorfläden in ganz Deutschland besucht, sie war bei Vorbereitungstreffen dabei und hat mit Organisatoren, Lieferanten und Betreibern gesprochen. Entstanden ist ein Band mit Geschichten vom Land, die Mut machen sollen ? dafür, Neues zu wagen, einfach mal etwas auszuprobieren, sich nicht den Umständen zu ergeben.