Among the various N,P,K level studied, the highest value for main vine length and internodal length was recorded with 175:70:70 NPK Kg ha-1 (F3), consequently the lowest values were recorded for floral parameters viz., days taken for opening of first male flower and days taken for opening of first female flower with 125:50:50NPK Kg ha-1 (F1). The application of 150:60:60 NPK Kg ha-1 (F2) recorded the highest values for the parameters number of nodes per vine, number of primary branches per vine, number of fruits per vine, fruit length, fruit diameter, yield per vine, yield per plot, total yield, number of seeds per fruit, fruit retention percentage, 100 seed weight, ascorbic acid content, protein content, reducing sugars, total sugars and total soluble solids and recorded lowest values for node at which first male flower appeared, node at which first female flower appeared , days taken to first harvest and days taken from fruit set to marketable maturity.
Nutrition is a key factor in the dairy cattle performance. The large variation in dairy cattle production is dependent on the nutrition. As a consequence, the objectives of this book were to evaluate the effects of nutritional, and some environmental conditions (expressed as Temperature-Humidity index THI) on productive performance in Holstein cattle in some Arab countries (Sudan - Lebanon and Kuwait). on feed intake, digestion coefficient of nutrients, rumen pH, rumination, milk production and composition and some reproduction parameters. We propose mechanisms that can be impact either in milk production or quality and/or reproduction. Our performance results indicate that the interaction between nutrition and environment is very important effective factor on feed intake and digestibility. As well as on animal production (milk yield, energy corrected milk, fat corrected milk, milk yield 305-day, energy corrected milk 305-day, fat corrected milk 305-day, peak of milk and milk constituents) and reproduction (days open, conception rate, pregnancy rate and calving interval) performance.
High yields and environmental control in crop farming call for precise adaptations to local growing conditions. Treating large fields in a uniform way by high capacity machinery cannot be regarded as a sustainable method for many situations. Because differences existing within single fields must be considered. The transition from former field work carried out manually or by small implements to present-day high-capacity machinery caused that the farmers lost the immediate and close contact with soils and crops. However, modern sensing and controlling technology can make up for this deficit. High tech methods that include proximal sensing and signals from satellites can provide for controls that allow adjusting farming operations to small fractions of one ha and sometimes even down to some m2, hence in a site-specific mode. This applies to operations for soil cultivation, sowing, fertilizing and plant protection. This book deals with site-specific concepts, applications and results.
Reduced agricultural productivity, deteriorated soil health, escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, depleting soil organic carbon, reduced microbial diversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food grains and health risk to the population are the main reason to think for substituting the nutrient requirement of the crop through organic inputs. In present work the efficiency of organic farming was evaluated. The results of present investigation showed that the organic treatment combinations increased the productivity of soybean and wheat crops and resulted in higher income as compared to the conventional one. Besides the increased yield and returns, the organic treatments significantly enhanced soil organic carbon and its fractions; and improved soil health in terms of soil physical, chemical and biological properties.
Herbicides constitute about 60% of the total pesticides consumed globally. In India, the use of herbicides started initially in tea gardens and picked up in the 1970s, when the high-yielding varieties of rice and wheat were introduced. Presently, 67 herbicides are registered in the country for controlling weeds in crops including cereals, pulses, oilseeds, fibre and tuber crops, and also in the non-crop situations. These chemicals are becoming increasingly popular because of their efficiency and relatively low cost compared with manual or mechanical weeding operations. The contribution of herbicide to total pesticide use, which was only 10-15% during the first decade of the 21 st century, has now increased to about 25% with an annual growth rate of 15-20%, which is much higher than insecticides and fungicides. Though the application of herbicides is minimizing yield loss to a great extent, their residues in the food chain and surface and groundwater create some environmental nuisance particularly to non-target organisms. Research on pesticide residues in India was started during 1970s, when such chemicals were introduced on a greater scale along with high-yielding variety seeds, irrigation and chemical fertilizers for increasing food production. However, the herbicide residue research was not given much emphasis until 1990s. The Indian Council of Agricultural Research initiated a national level programme known as All India Coordinated Research Project on Weed Management through the NRC-Weed Science as the main centre along with some centers of ICAR Institutes and state agricultural universities. Over the last two decades, adequate information was generated on estimation, degradation and mitigation of herbicide residues, which were documented in annual reports, bulletins, monographs and scientific articles. However, there was no consolidated compilation of all the available information providing a critical analysis of herbicide residues. Accordingly, an effort has been made in the publication to compile the available information on herbicide residues in India. This is the first report of its kind which presents the findings of herbicide residues and their interactions in the biotic and abiotic environment. There are 16 chapters contributed by the leading herbicide residue scientists, each describing the present status of herbicide use, crops and cropping systems, monitoring, degradation and mitigation, followed by conclusions and future lines of work. This book will be useful to the weed scientists in general and herbicide residue chemists in particular, besides the policy makers, students and all those concerned with the agricultural production in the country.