There is lack of science based production recommendations for Jatropha in Zambia. In particular fertilizer supplementation regime and this may be contributing to observed low yield. Jatropha growers in Zambia have continued experiencing poor yields and oil of Jatropha, hence if it is to remain the best alternative for fuel there is need to improve the performance of it using mineral fertilizers. In addition, Jatropha growers experience poor yields because there has been inadequate documentation on the nutrients Nitrogen, Phosphorus, potassium and Sulphur ( NPK and S ) that increase the oil production of the plant. This paper shows the positive effects of using appropriate nutrient levels of fertilizers for the efficient production of Jatropha oil.
Effect of nutrients and terminal clipping on growth and yield of summer sesame was carried out at Agriculture College Farm, Nagpur during 2011-12. The experiment was laid out in Factorial Randomized Block Design with three nutrient treatments viz. N1 (RDF), N2 (RDF + ZnSO4), N3 (RDF + FeSO4) and four clipping treatments viz. C0(no clipping), C1(clipping at 25 DAS), C2(clipping at 35 DAS), C3(clipping at 45 DAS). There were 12 treatment combinations replicated thrice. The results of the study indicated that, significantly superior plant height, no. of branches, dry matter accumulation,no. of capsules, seed yield plant-1, seed yield kg ha-1 & oil yield kg ha-1 was recorded in nutrient treatments N2(RDF+ZnSO4) followed by N3 (RDF+FeSO4) over N1(RDF).Whereas, in clipping treatments plant height was significantly superior in C0(no clipping), no.of branches, no.of capsules, seed yield plant-1, seed yield kg ha-1 & oil yield kg ha-1 in C2(clipping at 35 DAS) followed by C1(clipping at 25 DAS) and C3(clipping at 45 DAS). GMR,NMR & B:C ratio were highest in N2 (RDF + ZnSO4) and clipping C2(clipping at 35 DAS). Fertility status was improved due to application of RDF + ZnSO4 & RDF + FeSO4.
Salinity is one of the most serious factor limiting the productivity of agricultural crops, with adverse effects on germination, plant vigour and crop yield. However, the way in which salinity exerts its influence on these vital processes, whether it is through an osmotic effect or specific ion toxicity, is still not resolved.Our experimental results indicated that germination parameters viz., germination percentage, germination rate, root and shoot length, root and shoot dry weight and relative water content were significantly reduced due to effect of ion stress induced by NaCl and water stress induced by PEG-8000. The -1.0MPa water potential was found to be a completely inhibitory for seed germination. Ionic stress was found more inhibitory than water stress. The photosynthetic parameters viz. photosynthesis rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and quantum efficiency of PS-II also found to decreased significantly with increase stress induced by PEG-8000 and NaCl. Based on the results of the experiment, it seems that for tomato cv.GT-2 the ionic effect of salinity is more detrimental then osmotic
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and provide sustenance in stressful environments. Agro-ecosystems in many regions around the globe are affected by high temperatures, soil salinity/alkalinity, low pH and metal toxicity. High salinity and severe draught are other major constraints affecting agricultural practices and also plants in the wild. A major limiting factor affecting global agricultural productivity is environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield, they also have a devastating impact on plant growth. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic associations with the rhizospheric microbes. Naturally occuring plant-microbe interactions facilitate the survival of plants under these stressful conditions. The rhizosphere consists of several groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes that assists plants in coping with multiple stresses and also promote plant growth. These efficient microbes support the stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food- security problems. This book provides a detailed, holistic description of plant and microbe interaction. It elucidates various mechanisms of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity in the rhizosphere, discussing The rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Divided into two volumes, the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects for agricultural sustainability. Volume 1: Stress Management and Agricultural Sustainability, includes chapters offering a broad overview of plant stress management with the help of microbes. It also highlights the contribution of enzymatic and molecular events occurring in the rhizosphere due to plant microbe interactions, which in turn help in the biological control of plant disease and pest attacks. Various examples of plant microbe interaction in rhizospheric soil are elaborated to facilitate the development of efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance food and nutritional security. Providing a comprehensive information source on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability, this timely research book is of particular interest to students, academics and researchers working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy, and the plant protection sciences, as well as for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture.
Increase in world population, extreme weather conditions, decrease in fresh water supplies, and changes of dietary habits are major issues that affect global food security. We are expected to face the challenges of land use by 2050 because population will reach 9 billion while agricultural productivity losses are expected due to overuse of lands. How can we feed the next generations in a manner that respects our finite natural resources? Managing our resources in a sustainable way have only begun for selected crops. Much remains to be done to increase food yield. Cropping practices capable of sustainable production need to be elaborated, especially in fragile ecosystems. Typical applications will include the improvement and use of genetic resources; crop management and diversification; diffusion of improved varieties; development of cropping systems; sustainable cropping systems for areas prone to environmental degradation; use of agro-ecological data for crop production forecasting; and networks for regional coordination, and data exchange. The impetus behind this book is to bring attention to a cropping system that bears direct relevance to sustainable agriculture and food security. ´´Underutilized´´ crops are found in numerous agricultural ecosystems and often survive mainly in marginal areas. It is timely to review their status because, in recent decades, scientific and economic interests have emerged which focus on lesser-known cultivated species. Underutilized crops have a great potential to alleviate hunger directly, through increasing food production in challenging environments where major crops are severely limited. ´´Global Perspectives on Underutilized Crops´´ is therefore topical and highlights the unmet agricultural challenges that we face today. This book is an important resource for students and researchers of crop science and agricultural policy makers.