India is largely occupies area of fenugreek with high production. The extent of yield mainly depends on various environmental factors and cultural practices. The factors like optimum spacing play an important role for achieving maximum yield per unit area. Normally, the fenugreek is sown by broadcasting which is common practice adopted by the farmer in Gujarat. This method dose not facilitates the farm operations viz., inter cultivation, weeding etc. Precise information regarding appropriate scheduling of irrigation based on IW/CPE ratio and method of sowing for fenugreek is meagre. Keeping in view the above considerations, comprehensive research programme was planned to study the judicious use of irrigation water which may provide information not only on water use by crop but also when to irrigate and to find out suitable method of sowing for fenugreek.
The study evaluated the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin; and assess the growth response of fluted pumpkin to different fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application, also to determine the influence of fertilizer micro-dosing and time of application on vegetative yield of fluted pumpkin; and to assess the nutrient composition response of fluted pumpkin to fertilizer micro-dosing. This was with a view to evaluating the effect of fertilizer micro-dosing on leaf yield and nutrient quality of fluted pumpkin. The experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm of Obafemi Awolowo University during the 2015 late and 2016 early raining seasons. The experiment was a factorial experiment involving seasons, micro-dozing times at sowing and two weeks after sowing, five levels of fertilizer applied as Urea. Data were collected on vine length, number of vines, number of leaves, chlorophyll content, biomass and leaf yield. The fresh leaves were subsequently evaluated at time of harvest for proximate and phyto-chemical contents. Data collected were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine the effec
Mustard has been widely cultivated during rabi season in the country and the yield level is considerably higher due to its higher water and fertilizer use efficiencies.The future of this crop is bright in India because the Government of India has provided, various support and incentive programs for oilseed growers. Growth, development and final yield are mainly affected by the space available to plants. So, it is imperative to adjust plant population through planting method. Weeds are one of the major constraints for the poor yield of mustard crop as they compete with the crop plants for moisture, nutrients, light and space. So, proper weed management is necessary for obtaining higher yield. In this context, this book identifies the proper planting methods and weed management practices for getting higher yield as well as maximum economic benefits. All the latest findings is also added in this text. The book contains the latest, authoritative and readily usable information on mustard crop.
The genotypes CHFRG-10, CHFRG-22, CHFRG-28 and CHFRG-30 were found to be superior for the most of the yield components and fruit quality traits. High PCV and GCV, heritability, genetic gain were observed for vine length, number of node per vine, number of node to first pistillate flower appearance, pedicel length, fruit length, number of fruits per plant, and yield per plant. Correlation studies indicated that fruit yield per plant was positively and significantly correlated with vine length, number of node per vine, crop duration, fruit length, fruit diameter, number of fruit per plant and an average fruit weight however negative association was established with days to first staminate flower anthesis and pistillate flower anthesis. Maximum positive direct effect on fruit yield per plant was imposed by number of fruit per plant, vine length, average fruit weight, fruit length, days to first staminate flower anthesis, days to first pistillate flower anthesis and days to 50% emergence which were observed as the most important traits affecting fruit yield per plant and high negative direct effect was observed for number of node per vine, internodal length and fruit diameter.
Chemical insecticides were used indiscriminately, which cause various adverse effects and serious problem on environment as well as animal and human health including beneficial organism. For obtaining higher yield of a good quality, it is necessary to adopt insect pests´ management practices which are economically feasible, environmentally sound and sociologically acceptable. Screening of insect pests on field pea increased with the advancement of crop age and the actual damage.
The experiment was laid out in a Factorial randomized block design with twenty cowpea genotypes for four aluminium (0, 20, 40, 60 ppm) treatments and three replications. Based on mean performance the genotypes T-15, T-13 and T-2 were found to be superior for the most of the plant characteristics suggesting that they can be used for developing aluminium toxicity tolerant genotype. Similarly, T-7, T-4 and T-12were found to be superior for yield components. So, these genotypes were promising and may be used as a parental source in any breeding programme. Among all aluminium treatment, 20 ppm was best for plant characteristics whereas, for others control (0 ppm) performs better. SDS-PAGE data analysis provides information that protein banding pattern could not be affected by aluminium treatment in the soil.
In any ecosystem, plant and microbe interaction is inevitable. They not only co-exist but also support each other´s survival and also provide for sustenance in stressful environment. Agro-ecosystems of many regions around the globe are affected by multi-stress. Major limiting factors affecting the agricultural productivity worldwide are environmental stresses. Apart from decreasing yield they introduce devastating impact on plant growth as well. Plants battle with various kind of stresses with the help of symbiotic association with the microbes in the rhizosphere. Naturally existing plant-microbe interaction facilitates survival of plants under these stressful conditions. Rhizosphere consists of many groups of microbes, plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is one such group of microbes which assist plants in coping with multiple stresses and in plant growth as well. These microbes help in stress physiology of the plants and can be extremely useful in solving agricultural as well food security problems. The proposed book is split into two parts, with an aim to provide comprehensive description and highlight a holistic approach. It elucidates various mechanisms in rhizosphere of nutrient management, stress tolerance and enhanced crop productivity. The book discusses rhizospheric flora and its importance in enhancement of plant growth, nutrient content, yield of various crops and vegetables as well as soil fertility and health. Both volumes of the book addresses fundamentals, applications as well as research trends and new prospects of agricultural sustainability. Volume 2: Nutrient Management and Crop Improvement, contains chapters which cover a broad overview of plant growth promoting activities of microbes. This proposed book also highlights the contribution of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, iron and zinc-solubilizing microbes from rhizospheric soil to develop efficient indigenous microbial consortia to enhance the food and nutritional security. With the given content and layout the proposed book will be an all-inclusive collection of information, which will be useful for students, academicians, researchers working in the field of rhizospheric mechanisms, agricultural microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology, agronomy and sustainable agriculture and also for policy makers in the area of food security and sustainable agriculture. It will be of special interest to both academics and professionals working in the fields of microbiology, soil microbiology, biotechnology and agronomy, as well as the plant protection sciences. Timely, this edited and research book provides an essential and comprehensive source of material from basic to advance findings on microbes and their role in agricultural and soil sustainability.
India is the second largest producer and third largest exporter of onion in the world. Onion represents the sole item in the list of fruits and vegetables where Indian figures prominently in the world production and export. Indian onions are famous for their pungency and are available round the year. The demand for bulb onion as well as quality seeds are increasing day by day and the price of seeds remain fairly high in each season. To sustain onion production, it is very difficult to increase yield horizontally, but there exists a great scope to do the same vertically that could be achieved by using good quality seed. The quality of onion seed production is still dealt by small farmers, who have inadequate knowledge for selecting proper grade of bulb and spacing of plant. This both factor reflected their effect on seed production of onion. Therefore, it is essential to generate new knowledge and technologies regarding seed quality attributes for increased production of onion. all those above reason, the present study was conducted to investigate the effect of bulb size and spacing on quality seed production of onion.
Insects are the most dominant species on earth with significant mechanisms for survival of the fittest to the changing evolutionary pattern. Pesticides belonging to different chemistries like organophosphates, carbamates and synthetic pyrethroids extensively used by the farmers for managing the insect pests have led to resistance development due to selection pressure. With the progress of time line, the number of insects known to be resistant to different insecticides also increased in alarming rate. S. litura commonly known as tobacco caterpillar or armyworm or Indian leaf worm or cluster caterpillar is a polyphagous insect pest causing more than 26-100 % yield loss in South Asia. Insecticide resistance is one of the most important phenomena that threaten sustainable pest management programmes. Hence, it is important to monitor and detect resistance at its budding level so as to implement appropriate measures to restrain its increase. Hence, this investigation is proposed to assess the extent of insecticide resistance in S. litura and to suggest measures for resistance management and to develop Good Agricultural Practices.
Micronutrients are very much essential for growth, development and reproduction of plants and are required by plants in very small quantities, yet they are very effective in regulating plant growth, development and reproduction due to enzymatic action. Different crops require varied quantities of micronutrients at different growth stages. Multiple cropping with high yielding varieties of crop is one of the most important cause of removal of micronutrients from soil. Under deficiency of micronutrients, the growth of plant is hampered; the plants are subjected to attack by diseases and the yield of crop decreases accordingly. Nutrients can be applied both by conventional methods and by foliar application methods. Foliar application methods make nutrients promptly available, therefore this peculiar mode of feeding make this mode of nutrient application better as compared to soil application.