Drying is key post-harvest operation to inhibit mold and yeast growth. The application of appropriate groundnut sun drying surface is an essential counter mechanism for Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus invasion and aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts. The method is simple and low-tech with potential to sustainably produce aflatoxin free groundnuts in Zambia. This could serve to revamp Zambia´s market opportunities in the world for groundnut.
Yield, storability, processing quality and pest management of potatoes, several sets of experiments to investigate the effect of some plant extract and essential oils on the growth, yield attributes, storability, mechanical injures, physiological disorders, processing related characters and insect pest management, and to find out the effect of various application techniques of essential oils at ambient temperature on decay, weight loss and chips and French fries quality are also include in this book. This book also aims to provide a novel anti-sprouting agent for inhibiting growth of potato tubers and processing quality and to identify of terpenoids which may be used to inhibit tuber sprouting as compared to CIPC as a conventional chemical inhibitor. The experimentation and their respective procedures mentioned in this work, are carried out at favorable conditions under very good supervision, and the results are thus obtained, by analyzing the quality parameters on well-equipped laboratories.
This book focuses on the existing knowledge regarding the effect of global climate change on tea plant physiology, biochemistry, and metabolism as well as economic and societal aspects of the tea industry. Specifically, this book synthesizes recent advances in the physiological and molecular mechanisms of the responses of tea plants to various abiotic and biotic stressors including high temperature, low temperature or freezing, drought, low light, UV radiation, elevated CO 2 , ozone, nutrient deficiency, insect herbivory, and pathogenic agents. This book also discusses challenges and potential management strategies for sustaining tea yield and quality in the face of climate change. Dr. Wen-Yan Han is a Professor and Dr. Xin Li is an Associate Professor at the Tea Research Institute of the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (TRI, CAAS), Hangzhou, PR China. Dr. Golam Jalal Ahammed is an Associate Professor at the Department of Horticulture, College of Forestry, Henan University of Science and Technology, Luoyang, PR China.
In the Hop Aroma Compendium you will find a detailed description of unique aromas of 48 hop varieties out of the United States, Australia and Germany. No other raw material used in brewing has such a great influence on the aroma, flavour and bitterness of the beer as hops. And no other raw material has as many aromas as hops. In the last few years, there has been a growth in the number of brewers who wish to rediscover hops in order better to differentiate their beers. They want to know not only the alpha or oil content; they are interested not only in technical values. What they want to know is how the hops smell, what aromas they have and what effect these aromas may have on the finished beer. Joh. Barth & Sohn, the leading provider of hop-related services, has therefore cooperated closely with two world champion beer sommeliers and a perfumist to itemise and describe in detail the aromas of the most important hop varieties. Each hop variety has its very own aroma composition and each hop variety changes a beer´s flavour. The original hop aroma is, of course, only a starting point, but those who know the hop aromas and their effects can also arouse enthusiasm among their customers for nuanced beers. Discover hops and their incomparable aromas in the interests of beer and of your customers!
The capacity of mixed forests to mitigate climate change effects by increasing resilience and lowering risks is pinpointed as an opportunity to highlight the role of tree species rich forests as part of complex socio-ecological systems. This book updates and presents the state-of-the-art of mixed forest performance in terms of regeneration, growth, yield and delivery of ecosystem services. Examples from more than 20 countries in Europe, North Africa and South America provide insights on the interplay between structure and functionining, stability, silviculture and optimization of management of this type of forests. The book also analyses the role of natural mixed forests and mixed plantations in the delivery of ecosystem services and the best modelling strategy to study mixed forest dynamics. The book is intended to serve as a reference tool for students, researchers and professionals concerned about the management of mixed forests in a context of social and environmental change.
This book describes the concept, characteristics, methodology, design, management, business, recent advances and future technologies of plant factories with artificial lighting (PFAL) and indoor vertical farms. The third wave of PFAL business started in around 2010 in Japan and Taiwan, and in USA and Europe it began in about 2013 after the rapid advances in LED technology. The book discusses the basic and advanced developments in recent PFALs and future smart PFALs that emerged in 2016. There is an emerging interest around the globe in smart PFAL R&D and business, which are expected to play an important role in urban agriculture in the coming decades. It is also expected that they will contribute to solving the trilemma of food, environment and natural resources with increasing urban populations and decreasing agricultural populations and arable land area. Current obstacles to successful PFAL R&D and business are: 1) no well-accepted concepts and methodology for PFAL design and management, 2) lack of understanding of the environmental effects on plant growth and development and hydroponics among engineers; 3) lack of understanding of the technical and engineering aspects of PFAL among horticulturists; 4) lack of knowledge of the technical challenges and opportunities in future PFAL businesses among business professionals, policy makers, and investors and 5) lack of a suitable textbook on the recent advances in PFAL technologies and business for graduate students and young researchers. This book covers all the aspects of successful smart PFAL R & D and business.
Wheat ( Triticum L.) is an annual herbaceous plant in the Poacae (Gramineae) family and settles in the Triticeae (Hordeae) subfamily. It is of great ethnobotanical importance. Other cereal crops such as maize, rice, barley, and millet are also domesticated from this family. Together they constitute the most economically important plant family in modern times, providing food, forage, building materials (bamboo, thatch), and fuel (ethanol) to support a diverse range of human activities. In recent years, however, due to the awareness of gluten in wheat-based diet, there has been a rise in interest in its wild relatives and landraces as new resources for consumption. Accordingly, crop scientists have also begun to reexamine the origin, evolution, and unique characteristics of cultured and non-cultured hulled wheats. Although hulled wheats, which include einkorn, emmer, wild emmer, spelta, macha, and vavilovii, are still grown in limited quantities on the higher areas of Turkey, Italy, Germany, Morocco, Israel, and Balkan countries, they have been sought after for their health promoting effects. However, despite the newfound popularity of hulled wheats in the lay communities, there lacks a critically reviewed resource for the researchers and professionals who wish to further develop these crop species. In this book, we provide an overview of hulled wheats with special attention to genetic diversities, conservation, and applications.
Excellent yields, short maturity and other advantages ´´It is claimed for the system described in this book that by its aid no back-yard is too small, no soil too poor, to grow vegetables in such quantity and of such quality as will materially lessen a family´s food bill´´, wrote in 1921 the author in his introduction. Indeed, after nine years´ persistent experiments in the use of electricity and quick-growing methods, A. Carr Bennett developed a method which proved successful ´´in the stimulating of fertile vegetable seed.´´ It also increases the speed of germination and the number of plants that reach maturity, and accelerates maturation too: for example, white turnips reached maturity in just thirty-five days instead of the usual sixty, which allowed for a new crop to be planted. The Bennett method is one of a number of ´´electroculture´´ techniques which almost disappeared after WW2, when agrochemicals started to replace everything and brought with them all the dramatic side effects we know today. It works on all different sorts of plant: ´´In 1918, electrified seed of this description gave on an average over 30 per cent increased yield in bushels per acre; the grain produced was of a better quality, and the straw longer and stouter. This is the ´´larger sphere´´ which the writer is now contemplating. Imagine how much such an increase in wheat-yield would mean to New South Wales!´´ If we replace ´´New South Wales´´ with ´´Mankind´´ then everybody will understand how important this book is. Almost a century later, we are pleased to once again be able present this information to everybody, including farmers, gardeners, agronomists and anyone concerned about food, health and environment.
Der klimatische Wandel stellt vielfältige und neuartige Anforderungen an die praktische Gartendenkmalpflege. Dahinter verbergen sich eine Anzahl von Themen und Fragestellungen, die von naturwissenschaftlichen und kunsthistorischen bis zu ökonomischen und gärtnerischen Aspekten reichen: zukünftige Klimaszenarien für die historischen Gärten, ökologisch fundierte Pflegestrategien, Klimaadaption der Gehölze, historisches Wissen um Kalamitäten, Erfahrungswissen der Verantwortlichen historischer Gärten, Revitalisierung von Altbäumen, Pflanzung neuer Bäume, Wasser- und Bodenmanagement, zukünftige Auswahl der Gehölze und deren Anzucht in lokalen Baumschulen u. v. m. Die Veröffentlichung resultiert aus dem dreijährigen Förderprojekt der Deutschen Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU) ´´Zukunftsweisender Umgang mit der Gehölz-vegetation historischer Gärten in Zeiten des Klimawandels´´. Um das Thema umfassend zu beleuchten, wurden Modellorte innerhalb der Gärten und Parks der Stiftung Preußische Schlösser und Gärten Berlin-Brandenburg (SPSG) gewählt und ein transdisziplinärer Ansatz verfolgt. Zudem vereinten die Forschungsarbeiten Ansätze der angewandten Forschung, über die Grundlagenforschung bis zur Analyse von Erfahrungswissen. Die Publikation fasst die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse und Erfahrungen zusammen und spricht notwendige Handlungsansätze und zukunftsfähige Lösungsstrategien für ´´klimawandeladaptierte historische Gärten´´ an. Somit soll diese wissenschaftliche Publikation auch als Handreichung für die Praxis der Gehölzverwendung in historischen Gärten genutzt werden./Climate change will have a wide variety of effects leading to altered frame conditions for the preservation of historical gardens. This relates to a number of issues and questions ranging from natural science and art history-related to economic and gardening aspects: future climate scenarios for heritage gardens, ecologically based management strategies, climate adaptation of woody vegetation, historical knowledge of calamities and catastrophes, knowledge repositories with custodians of heritage gardens, revitalisation of mature trees, new tree planting, water and soil management in heritage gardens, future choice of trees, sourcing of trees in local nurseries etc. This book is the result of a research project funded by the German Federal Environmental Foundation (DBU) on future management of woody vegetation in heritage gardens under climate change. Based on the example of gardens and parks within the remit of the Prussian Palaces and Gardens Foundation Berlin-Brandenburg (SPSG), a transdisciplinary approach was specifically chosen in order to address the subject from all angles and with the aid of various methods - from applied and basic research through to analysis of practical knowledge. The present publication collates the expertise and experience acquired during the three years of the research project. It identifies necessary approaches and presents future-oriented strategies for climate change-adapted heritage gardens. This academic publication is therefore also intended to serve as guidance for practitioners with regard to the use of woody vegetation in heritage gardens.
Economic Effects of Land Fragmentation:Property Rights, Land Markets and Contracts in Bulgaria Institutioneller Wandel der Landwirtschaft und Ressourcennutzung /Institutional Change in Agriculture and Natural Resources. 1., Aufl. Violeta Dirimanova